Tuesday September 14, 1999

SMITHSONIAN Lawrence M. Small, 58, will become the 11th secretary of the Smithsonian in January. He is leaving his job as president of Fannie Mae, one of the principle U.S. home mortgage financing companies. Small will succeed I. Michael Heyman, 69, a former law professor and university chancellor, who is retiring. The Smithsonian Institution's Board of Regents yesterday picked Lawrence M. Small, the president of Fannie Mae and an art collector and passionate flamenco guitarist in his spare time, to become the new secretary of the world's largest museum complex. He takes over in January from I. Michael Heyman, 69, who is retiring after holding the post for the past five years. Officials at the Smithsonian said yesterday that Small's proven ability to lead a complex organization and his skills at team-building particularly impressed them. Larry is described by many who have worked with him as being one of the finest managers in America. The Smithsonian encompasses 16 museums, the National Zoo and numerous research facilities involved in subjects as varied as plant biology and astrophysics. The complex receives $412 million of its $570 million annual budget from Congress, which keeps a watchful eye on all levels of decision-making. Operating the Smithsonian, therefore, requires a deft political touch. The Smithsonian job is certainly one of the most visible in Washington but is also a platform for leadership throughout the museum and science community. The secretary is guardian of a brand name that almost everyone recognizes. Surveys show that more than half of all Americans have visited a Smithsonian museum.

TEXAS Windmills took their place with the repeating rifle and barbed wire as vital tools in the settling of the Texas Panhandle. It is generally thought that Colonel Groom, owner of the Diamond F Ranch in Carson County, was the first to sink water wells into his range in 1882. Windmills captured the imagination of J.B. Buchanan, who recently donated to the Smithsonian a wooden Eclipse found in its original box. Archaeologists hope an excavation of five grave sites begun Monday in downtown Dallas unearths new clues about the city's pioneers. Such archaeological finds can add significant details - about the clothes, health problems and affluence of early inhabitants - to the historic record. The excavation of the five grave sites probably will be completed within a week. The graves were among 14 discovered in a narrow greenway between sidewalks at the Convention Center and the Pioneer Cemetery immediately to the north. An examination of the remains, including the caskets and their hardware, should allow archaeologists to date the burials to within five years, Mr. Peter said. The material used to construct and decorate caskets was distinctive and changed regularly, he said. Austin historic preservation consultant Terri Myers is scheduled to meet with city officials tomorrow to discuss her task of gathering information for a proposed north Arlington historic district. The Texas Historical Commission is paying Myers $8,500, including expenses, to gather information about African-Americans who settled the area known as The Hill.


There is a program called Project Archaeology initiated by the Bureau of Land Management. The program created a set of lessons called Intrigue of the Past for 4th-7th grade. The lessons include three sections - one building concepts in archaeology, another process in archaeology, and a third on preservation and careers in archaeology. To find out more information about Project Archaeology in your state contact the Anasazi Heritage Center -

NEW MEXICO People of the Zia Pueblo hope their actions will generate movement toward new legislation aimed at protecting sacred icons. Just last week, down in New Mexico, Uncle Sam was back shopping again, this time agreeing to pay $101 million for the 95,000-acre Baca cattle ranch, a haven for one of the largest elk herds in the country. For observers keeping track of these blockbuster acquisitions, the strategy of spending hundreds of millions of tax dollars to add to the already vast amount of public land represents a bold move by the Clinton administration. It also illustrates a fundamental political shift from the Reagan years of the 1980s, when the Sagebrush Rebellion - a revolt against restrictions on public land - spread across the West. Preserving nature could be a major campaign issue in a presidential election for the first time.

ARIZONA A national organization with headquarters in Albuquerque, N.M., has bought the Grewe Site - considered one of the most important archaeological sites in the Southwest - near Casa Grande Ruins National Monument. The site, originally discovered by a 1930 Van Bergen-Los Angeles Museum expedition, contains one of the largest prehistoric ball courts discovered in Arizona. The court is similar in size and shape to one unearthed in the 1930s by a University of Arizona team, under the direction of the late Emil Haury, at Snaketown, a large Hohokam community. Archaeologists and prehistory buffs know the windswept mesas as locations of numerous large prehistoric ruins and petroglyph sites. Wood, together with David Wilcox, archaeologist from the Museum, of Northern Arizona in Flagstaff, and Jerry Robertson, ex-soldier and amateur archaeologist from Sedona, have studied the mesa's 12th and 13th century settlements and theorize that they are a system of strategically located defensive sites. They have suggested that the residents of the mesa allied to defend themselves against raids from the south, where the Hohokam people lived. Mexican troops invaded his village, killing his wife and children. Vengeance became his sole purpose in life. It was in a battle in 1859 that he was nick-named Geronimo (Spanish: Jerome) by the Mexican troops. For the next 50 years, just the name Geronimo put fear into every white man on either side of the Mexico-Arizona border. The Arizona Historical Society's Southern Arizona Division has received accreditation from the American Association of Museums. The future of the $320 million Rio Nuevo plan to resuscitate downtown and Tucson's birthplace along the Santa Cruz River will be left to voters. The plans include a reconstruction of the Convento and other historic structures along the Santa Cruz River west of downtown, along with a collection of museums and shops in the city's 62-acre Rio Nuevo property. The Rio Nuevo property requires flood protection work and an archaeological survey, as well as environmental mitigation due to an old landfill under much of the property before any construction can start. Once that's done, Updike said the city is talking to three museum operators about locating there - the Smithsonian Museum of the American West, Flandrau Science Center and the Arizona Historical Society. The Heard Museum still sits on its original site in central Phoenix. Only now, it's roughly eight times its original size and is world-renowned for its displays of Native American art and artifacts from the Southwest. In the 1950s, People's Drug Store opened as the state's first pharmacy with a drive-in window. In the new millennium, it will reopen as Sunnyslope's first historical museum. The buildings will become a historical center, with the museum, a visitors center and offices for the Sunnyslope Historical Society. Donations for the historical center project can be made to the Sunnyslope Historical Society's Building Fund, P.O. Box 26299, Phoenix, AZ 85068-6299. Clemenceau School marks its 75th anniversary with a public celebration Saturday. The building, which operated as a school from 1924 to 1987, is now home to the Clemenceau Heritage Museum. It was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1986. The Verde Historical Society started renovations on the building in 1989 before opening the Heritage Museum in 1991. Last week Fountain Hills Town Council members got their first look at the initial plans for the library/museum project proposed for the downtown. Architects are working hard to keep the planning for the facility within the budget set by the $3.7 million bonds approved by voters in May. A spring 2000 groundbreaking will be planned.

UTAH,1249,115007808,00.html? Paleontological treasures may not reach the public because of policies covering a large portion of the 1.9-million-acre Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument. While reaching sites on horseback and using small shovels, picks and brushes may be fine for archaeology work, it's not for paleontologists. Surely, something can be done that allows legitimate scientific research, such as studying dinosaurs, and yet still protects wilderness areas. Lawmakers need to make resolving that dilemma a priority.,1249,115008630,00.html? History is being restored in Pleasant Grove's Pioneer Park one stone and rock at a time.

NEVADA A downtown landmark that's on a list of America's most endangered historic places appears ready to succumb to the wrecking ball. Four of seven Reno City Council members said they'll likely vote Monday to tear down the Mapes Hotel. The Reno Historical Resources Commission will ask the council Monday to add the Mapes to the City Register of Historic Places.

CYBERIA There are many things one can do to protect the skin against sun damage. A National Cancer Institute simple rule - protect yourself from the sun when your shadow is shorter than you are. A scientist has found fossil evidence of a large pileup of dinosaur bodies that suggests a possible natural disaster more than 140 million years ago. Al Mackie, a B.C. government archeologist, said he believed the remains could be between 250 years old and 5,000 years old. The hunter's remains will be returned to his First Nations home for ceremonial burial in Dec. 2000. The house was destroyed more than a century ago, but its location south of the village was rediscovered in 1969 using infrared aerial photography. Archaeologists dug up 2,400 artifacts, from fireplace bricks and a row of cobbles to mislaid cutlery, buckles, burned wheat and a pot lid. The reconstruction, completed in January 1998, was meticulous. Among the rehabilitated buildings in "historic Mormon country" is the Grandin Building in Palmyra, where the first 5,000 copies of the Book of Mormon were printed. And a short distance from the log cabin sits the white frame house where the Smith family lived from 1825 to 1829. Tudor Hall was home to Edwin Booth and to his brother, John Wilkes Booth. Now, the four-bedroom brick dwelling is attracting national interest, with an October 16 auction prompting a desperate rush by everyone from history buffs to actors to preserve it. Investigators are waiting for city and state permission for a test excavation at one Tulsa site supposedly used for the secret burial of riot victims. If the dig confirms there are bodies at the site, it will be fully excavated. Archeologists and historians said the purported mass grave is one of what are believed to be a number throughout the Tulsa area, some of which may never be found. The Nebraska State Historical Society and the state Mexican American Commission have earned a national award for their book "Nuestros Tesoros: A Celebration of Nebraska's Mexican Heritage." The award, from the American Association for State and Local History, will be presented Oct. 1 at the association's annual meeting in Baltimore. Greg Jones works as a roofer, but he dreams of someday becoming an anthropologist. On Sunday, the Mill Shoals, Ill., resident carefully packed up arrowheads and other artifacts and brought them to an Artifact Identification Program at the Alexandrian Public Library. The event kicked off Indiana Archaeology Month in Posey County and Southwestern Indiana. Heart disease, once rare among Native American Indians, has become their leading cause of death, and doctors at the University of Arizona are trying to reverse that trend by combining modern medicine with traditional native healers. More research is needed to determine if a shipwreck in Newport Harbor is the legendary Endeavour. For the last week, a team of researches scoured the wreck but didn't find any evidence to prove it is the 18th-century vessel that carried Capt. James Cook to the South Pacific on his famed voyage of discovery. The USS New Jersey's original crew bade farewell to the 57-year-old battleship yesterday as it prepares to make a trip marking its transformation from history maker to historical icon. Miami's relations with historic preservation are enigmatic. The Dollars & Sense of Saving Historic Neighborhoods' will begin at 9:15 a.m. Saturday, Sept. 18 at the Wyndham Hotel. The Historical Museum of South Florida is getting ready for the future by -- what else? -- offering people a chance to trip through the past. For more information, please visit The city has spent $1.9 million on legal fees in a dispute over new regulations and lawsuits from reservoir opponents who say the reservoir would flood Mattaponi Indian archaeological sites. When Western Connecticut State University students go to professor Laurie Weinstein for guidance, she urges them to simply study what they love the most. "It doesn't matter what your major is. The important thing is people hire people who are educated. "Follow your bliss, I tell them." Weinstein, an associate professor in anthropology, has done just that all her life. For the Confederate uniforms assembled in the museum lab, time has been an enemy almost as formidable as war. The years have eaten away at sleeves and pant legs, torn off buttons and faded linings. Textile conservators triage the group. Come Friday, the uniforms will stand at attention again, some for the first time in decades as part of the state Museum of History’s exhibit "North Carolina and the Civil War." Seattle may revamp historic restrooms. The circa-1909 comfort station has been out of use for 40 years. The Bureau of Land Management, Eastern States, General Land Office, provides a database and images to more than 2 million federal land title records issued within their jurisdiction between 1820 and 1908. Again, these are actual document images online. The Thomas Chapel, nestled beneath a large oak tree a few hundred yards from Smith Mountain Lake, is believed to be one of only three surviving churches in Virginia built by or for slaves. Archaeologists have discovered the remains of a massive 3,000-year-old oak bridge on the Thames.