Monday November 8, 1999

NEVADA Fort Churchill was built in 1860. Diet was monotonous, especially as boiling food to a thick mush was the preferred method of cooking. The hardly recognizable meat stews were called slumgullion. In the 1930s, the Civilian Conservation Corps reconstructed the fort, turning it into a recreation area. But the local adobe mix wasn't quite right and it collapsed quickly. The ruins today are mostly of the original adobe.

UTAH,1249,125014645,00.html? Eco-warriors are high tech and well organized, and more likely to use satellite mapping and technical scientific information. The Internet has played a huge role in disseminating preservation issues. Groups representing ranchers, miners, loggers, outdoor recreationists and rural county commissioners have generally been slow to adapt information technology. Their Internet sites typically lack professionalism, and multiple use has not resonated with the public. Petroglyph police try to save the art of the ancients. While many visitors do no harm at all, others inflict unintentional damage by taking rubbings of the petroglyphs.

ARIZONA Reidhead and Hatch have been poking around in the desert all their lives, engaging in "salvage archaeology." They say preservation, not profit, is their main goal. A local rock-art scholar says a tourism venture may be the best way to protect the treasures of the Paulsell Ranch. Hatch says he'll hire archaeologists and paleontologists from local colleges as tour guides, and he says they may also try to restore some of the ruins. Men from several Southwestern internment camps were shipped to the prison camp in the Santa Catalina Mountains. During the war, as many as 300 draft resisters, including Jehovah's Witnesses and American Indians, stayed in the camp, said Mary Farrell, an archaeologist with the Forest Service. The 20th century has been mild, just four severe droughts compared with as many as 12 in some centuries, says Malcolm Hughes, director of the Laboratory of Tree-ring Research at the University of Arizona. A gold mine proposed near Yuma would harm land traditionally used by the Quechan Indian tribe for religious and cultural practices. The 8-mile-long diagonal area south of the Chocolate Mountains contains 16 trails and trail segments, including one that extends to a mountain north of Needles where tradition says that all Yuman-speaking people were created. The Running Man area also has a concentration of petroglyphs and cleared circles which serves as a "teaching area" in Quechan religious and cultural traditions.

NEW MEXICO In the late 1800s, the federal government signed treaties with numerous tribes, agreeing to educate Indian children in exchange for Indian land. The government established schools on old military posts or in crudely constructed buildings, attempting to assimilate the Indian students into mainstream American society. Once inside the hogan, Lee tucks his legs beneath him and sits facing a 4- by 7-foot vertical wooden loom. His large hands deftly weave a string of white yarn into what is shaping up to be a large, made-to-order, Navajo rug. Visitors to the new National Hispanic Cultural Center will get a taste of Spain's culture. Construction of the cultural center's new building is scheduled for completion in May or June. The Wheels museum board of directors has decided to reject an offer to give the proposed $50 million transportation museum 12.2 acres of land at the old locomotive repair yard property. "We've been working, with community support, to create the Wheels museum for more than two years -- and they're trying to throw us a crumb."

COLORADO The San Juans are beautiful but inhospitable. Franciscan Fathers Dominguez and Escalante reported the area treacherous and uninviting and the only visitors to the valley until the mid-1800s were trappers. Silver fever struck the area, stirring up trouble with the Utes. In 1873 Chief Ouray signed a treaty giving up rights to the San Juan mountains. A depression in 1893 closedthe area's mines, but by then enough settlers had come to the area to raise crops and livestock.

TEXAS The house, which was built in 1908 entirely by Swedish carpenters, still contains furniture the family brought by covered wagon on the move to Waco. It is believed to be the oldest furniture in the city. Many old photographs and artifacts are in the home, including moccasins given to Samuel Forsgard by Huaco Indians. The house is also unique in that it is the only house in Waco where the servants' quarters are still standing. The barns behind the house are listed as Texas landmarks. The family is about to begin the process of making the home a historical site so it cannot be torn down.

CYBERIA,2107,500054428-500089458-500319950-0,00.html On the CAT scan machine are the remains of a person who died in Chihuahua, Mexico, late in the 19th century. The cloth-wrapped body, mummified in dry desert air, eventually found its way into the Natural History Museum's anthropology collection. The machine is used to look at minerals, fossilized plants, pottery, stone and wood tools, insects and rare book bindings.,1575,SAV-9911080158,00.html Scandinavians are gearing up to celebrate the 1,000th anniversary of the arrival of the first Europeans in North America. But, bookstores are carrying a new book which argues that another group beat the Vikings by 200 years.,2107,500054438-500089482-500320049-0,00.html American Indians say Jamestown is nothing to celebrate. They gave brief accounts of tribal histories, then met privately with the Celebration 2007 planners to make detailed suggestions for how to incorporate their story into the celebration. As a one-man operation, he has limited time to delve into history and no funds to hire a professional archaeologist. So he's extending an open invitation to anyone interested in helping with the excavation or identification of items from the dig, or in exploring other historical hotspots throughout the property. Obstacles to preserving historic buildings: conversion of buildings is often quite expensive; refurbishing an old building may require a creative mixture of private, federal, state and municipal financing; some buildings just are in the wrong places; many towns don't have groups that promote historical preservation.