Got CALICHE? For traditional Navajos, raising livestock is linked to their religion, as reflected in the saying, "If you care for your sheep, your sheep will care for you."

GROUND IS BROKEN FOR A NEW MOUNTAIN MEADOW MASSACRE MONUMENT 05/21/99 ENTERPRISE, Utah (AP) _ A rock wall that for nearly 67 years surrounded the gravesites of 36 of the 120 victims killed in the 1857 massacre at Mountain Meadows has been removed as part of groundbreaking ceremonies for a new monument. The ceremony Monday, sponsored by the Enterprise 4th Ward of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and the Mountain Meadows Association, included recitations of written statements of descendants of 17 survivors of the massacre and the reading of a written statement from the Carroll County Arkansas Historical Society. The victims, all from Arkansas, were lead by Alexander Fancher and John T. Baker. The groundbreaking was attended by 150 persons from the Enterprise 4th Ward. The group removed a historical marker placed there in 1990, which had replaced a marker placed in 1932 by the Utah Trails and Landmarks Association. Rocks from the old wall will be used in rebuilding the wall around the gravesite and around an existing rock cairn, originally built in 1859 by Army Brevet Major James H. Carleton. The original cairn, was 12 feet high and 50 feet in circumference, according to Kent Bylund, a member of the Mountain Meadow Association board of directors. Throughout the process of removing the rock wall. Enterprise LDS 4th Ward Bishop Lee Bracken said, "There was a feeling of respect and reverence (for the victims). We tried to gain an understanding of what was really there. We were basically working at a cemetery." After completion of that task, a devotional was held. "It was a very uplifting experience and one of tremendous unity for our ward," Bracken said. Dedication of the soon to be rebuilt gravesite memorial on a 2.5 acre site owned by the church is slated for late summer. The association will be responsible for other improvements including identifying and marking grave sites, road upgrades, a parking lot, restrooms and plaques explaining what happened at Mountain Meadows. At the Dan Sill Hill site, near State Route 18, the association is in the process of redoing three markers previously erected in 1990. "The existing markers create a lot of confusion since they do not explain the story accurately and do not explain who committed the massacre and why they committed it," Bylund said. The new markers, approved by the church, state that local Mormon settlers, along with Paiute Indians, were responsible for the massacre, he said. The proposed wording of one of the plaques states, "The causes and circumstances fostering the sad event, which ensued over the next five days, involved a divergence of complex national political views and misinformation or lack of information. These views were intertwined with deep religious beliefs to such an extent that still today they defy any clear or simple explanation." A similar monument to the victims was erected in 1955 in Harrison, Ark. On Sept. 7, 1857, the Baker-Fancher party circled their wagons against a siege that ended five days later with the slaying of men, women and children. Historians believe the massacre stemmed from antigovernment sentiments and Mormons' fears of invasion and persecution by the U.S. Army. The wagon train, for unknown reasons, became the focus of that hostility. Blame for the attack was laid on John D. Lee, a zealous Mormon portrayed by the church as a rogue major in the Mormon militia. He and others were excommunicated from the church and Lee was tried and executed at Mountain Meadows nearly 20 years after the slaughter.

FIRST LADY ADMIRES FIRST AMERICANS' TREASURES 05/21/99 ACOMA PUEBLO, N.M. (AP) _ Hillary Rodham Clinton, decked out in a cowboy hat and turquoise, toured an ancient Indian village atop a sandstone mesa Friday to promote the preservation of America's past, including a 360-year-old mission church. "After all, at the time of the first millennium, you were the only Americans here," Mrs. Clinton said, drawing enthusiastic applause from a crowd of 800 people at the Acoma Pueblo. "And when we talk about saving America's treasures, we have to begin by saving the first Americans' treasures." Mrs. Clinton visited Acoma, Santa Fe and Albuquerque on Friday on a tour of the Southwest. She visited Arizona on Wednesday and then headed later in the day to Mesa Verde National Park in Colorado for a Saturday tour of Cliff Palace. At Sky City, the Acomas' ancient village atop a 367-foot mesa, she toured the water-damaged San Esteban del Rey, a massive adobe Roman Catholic mission built in the 17th century. She collected handmade pottery from more than a dozen Acoma artists and watched two traditional dances. A 93-year-old potter, Concepcion Faustine, is among 30 people who live year-round atop the mesa, which has no electricity and only three cisterns to collect water. Most residents haul water from a pool 14 miles away. Mrs. Clinton and the tiny, bent-over woman embraced, and the potter, tears in her eyes, kissed Mrs. Clinton on the cheek. "No other first lady or president has ever come to our sacred place," former pueblo Gov. Ron Shutiva said. Mrs. Clinton was in the Southwest to promote the Save America's Treasures program, a public-private partnership between the National Trust for Historic Preservation and the White House Millennium Council. It has raised more than $60 million, including $30 million in federal funds, to protect threatened cultural treasures, including documents, maps, arts, journals and historic structures.

FIRST LADY GETS WIDE-RANGING SOUTHWEST SAMPLER IN NEW MEXICO 05/22/99 ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. (AP) _ Decked out in a cowboy hat, first lady Hillary Rodham Clinton has tasted a Southwest sampler of multiple cultures, seeing art mingled with history in Santa Fe, Albuquerque and ancient Acoma. The first lady toured a 360-year-old mission church at Acoma Pueblo, accepting Indian pottery from several Acoma artists Friday. She viewed a monumental sculpture in an old Hispanic neighborhood of Albuquerque and watched elementary school students perform a play about an Aztec legend not unlike "Romeo and Juliet." She toured the Palace of the Governors in Santa Fe, one of the oldest public buildings in North America, dating from 1610. She flew to Cortez, Colo., late Friday for her Saturday visit to Mesa Verde National Park in southwestern Colorado _ all part of her "Save America's Treasures" tour of the Southwest. The journey began Wednesday at the Grand Canyon. At Acoma, Mrs. Clinton was shown the water-damaged San Esteban del Rey mission church, built beginning in 1630. She announced a $75,000 grant from Cornerstones Community Partnerships, a Santa Fe group that restores old churches, to help preserve San Esteban. Preserving the mission church is particularly important at the end of a millennium, she said, because the Acoma Indians have lived near their Enchanted Mesa for more than 1,000 years. "At the time of the first millennium, you were the only Americans here," she told an applauding crowd of about 800. "And when we talk about saving America's treasures, we have to begin by saving the first Americans' treasures." She toured Sky City, a village the Acoma tribe built atop a 367-foot-tall mesa near Enchanted Mesa around 1200. The adobe and sandstone homes have no running water or electricity. Water traditionally was gathered from natural cisterns and carried in elegant clay pots on women's heads. Now it's trucked in. Only about 30 people are chosen for the honor of living year-round atop the mesa 50 miles west of Albuquerque. "I know how deeply those of you who live here feel about your community," Mrs. Clinton said. "I could see it as I visited the school and saw the children learning their native pueblo language. I could see it as I toured the old pueblo and visited the mission. "I know that living in the oldest continuous inhabited community in the entire United States is a great privilege," she said. Concepcion Faustine, a 93-year-old potter who lives on the mesa, was among those bearing gifts for Mrs. Clinton. Ms. Faustine, tears in her eyes, kissed the first lady on the cheek. "This is the first time we've had a first lady visit Acoma," former Acoma Gov. Ron Shutiva said. In Albuquerque's Martineztown, Mrs. Clinton announced a $4,000 National Endowment for the Arts grant to preserve the Southwest Pieta, a monumental sculpture by Luis Jimenez. The 20-foot-tall statue of a man cradling the figure of a woman incorporates Aztec legend in traditional Christian form. Students from the nearby Longfellow Elementary School performed a play based on the Aztec legend. Popocatepetl cradles the body of his lover, Ixtlaccihuatl, who has died of a broken heart, mistakenly believing her man dead in battle. Earlier Friday, Mrs. Clinton visited Santa Fe, where she saw two large buffalo hide paintings at the Palace of the Governors. Mrs. Clinton described the early 18th-century hide paintings "an incredible treasure." One hide portrays an attack by Pueblo Indians and Spanish troops on an Apache village. The other shows an ambush of Spanish soldiers and Pueblo Indians hunting for French intruders. Art, Mrs. Clinton said, "is something that really, truly tells us who we are today." The visit was part of a swing through the Southwest to promote the Save America's Treasures program, a public-private partnership between the National Trust for Historic Preservation and the White House Millennium Council. It has raised more than $60 million, including $30 million in federal funds, to protect threatened cultural treasures, including documents, maps, arts, journals and historic structures.

REMAINS OF JEMEZ PUEBLO ANCESTORS REBURIED 05/22/99 PECOS, N.M. (AP) _ Wind whistled through trees and clouds darkened the sky just as a closing prayer celebrated the return and reburial of nearly 2,000 skeletal remains of Jemez Pueblo Indian ancestors. They knew they were home, said Jemez Gov. Raymond Gachupin. "I believe that this was the right and dignified thing to do," he said at the weathered adobe ruins of the Pecos Pueblo, home of his tribe's ancestors and now part of the Pecos National Historical Park. The remains were returned last week from Harvard University. They had been excavated from the old Pecos Pueblo between 1915 and 1929 by archaeologist Alfred V. Kidder. The bones and funerary items represent the foundation of scientific knowledge of the American Southwest. About 1,000 Jemez Pueblo Indians _ clad in moccasins, ceremonial dresses and traditional ribbon shirts _ paid their last respects to their ancestors in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, 25 miles southeast of Santa Fe. The ancestors have been "freed to roam the mountains, hills and valleys of their birthplace," Gachupin said during the prayer ceremony after the reburial. "I guarantee all of you that they are joyfully happy. This symbolizes the new beginning for my Pecos-Jemez people," he said. Tribal officials dusted the grave site _ in the shadow of the Pecos Pueblo ruins _ with corn meal to pay their last respects. A century before Kidder's digging, Pecos Pueblo was a thriving trading center that interacted with plains Indians, other pueblos and Spanish settlers. The Indians of Pecos eventually abandoned the pueblo in 1838 after it was devastated by war and disease. The Pecos people made a 100-mile journey westward to what is now Jemez Pueblo. On Wednesday, hundreds of Jemez Indians set off from their homes on an eastward trek, retracing their ancestors' footsteps, to meet a tractor-trailer rig bearing the remains. Their journey ended Saturday with the unloading of more than 130 crates. The remains were ceremonially reburied in a 600-foot long plot, which serpentines amid juniper and pinon trees. "This is a lovely place to return home," said Barbara Isaac, director of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard. "This is the end of many journeys and it is also the beginning of many more journeys." There has been some scientific loss by returning the remains, but the relationship gained by working with the Jemez Indians has taught researchers even more, said James Bradley, director of the Robert S. Peabody Museum at Phillips Academy in Andover, Mass. "This is a culture that values not just knowledge, but respect," he said. "This is the right thing to do." The remains of other tribes across the country will eventually be returned to their homelands under the 1990 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act. The return of the Pecos remains is the largest and perhaps most significant transfer under the act. "This clearly demonstrates to the world that Jemez Pueblo is dedicated to protecting its ancestors and sacred sites." Gachupin said. "It also proves to a very large segment that Native Americans have a right to artifacts that have been taken from them." Religious rights are closely guarded by pueblos, and the burial and grave site were closed to non-Indians. Members of the Mescalero and Jicarilla Apache tribes, the Comanche Nation and Cochiti Pueblo also attended the burial ceremonies. Park visitors will be barred from the grave site.

INDIANS MAKE PILGRIMAGE TO RETURNED BONES 05/21/99 SANTA FE, New Mexico (AP) _ Scores of Pueblo Indians were retracing their tribe's past, making an 80-mile (130-kilometer) trek to Pecos Pueblo to unite with the bones of their ancestors. The Indians were following a route taken by their ancestors 160 years ago, when disease and warfare decimated Pecos Pueblo. Most of the survivors moved to Jemez Pueblo, a small community of scattered adobe houses about 50 miles (80 kilometers) north of Albuquerque. To unify the tribe and reconnect with their culture, a large group of people from Jemez Pueblo left on foot Wednesday. They headed through the high red rock area of northern New Mexico through the Sangre de Cristo Mountains toward Pecos National Historic Park, about 15 miles (25 kilometers) east of Santa Fe. By late Thursday, the 200 marchers had finished about half their journey. On Saturday, they plan to meet the truck that is bringing home the bones of 1,912 people excavated between 1915 and 1929 in New Mexico's upper Pecos Valley by archaeologist Alfred Kidder. The pueblo plans a burial ceremony at the monument. Jemez Pueblo Gov. Raymond Gachupin said the long walk to the Pecos monument is a way for the entire community to get involved. "I think it's mostly to pay tribute to our ancestors to give us an idea of the pain and tribulations that they went through," he said. "For them, it was a matter of survival. For us, it is a matter of respect." Harvard University handed over the remains Tuesday in the largest transfer under the 1990 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, which requires the return of Indian artifacts. The bones, plus objects to be returned next week from Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, represent the foundation of scientific knowledge about early cultures of the American Southwest, said James Bradley, director of the Peabody Andover museum. According to the Jemez creation story, Father Sun warned that if the people neglected or forgot the traditional ways, he would take their lands for someone else. Today, the culture remains strong: Children in the 3,200-member tribe learn their traditional language, Towa, before English. "Other pueblos are losing their language," tribal official Cruz Toya said. "The reason we are here is to show the people, our ancestors, we care. By doing this we also teach the kids our language and culture. Hopefully, they will carry this on and tell their kids the history we made." Reclaiming the remains was a long, quiet process for the tribe. In September 1991, then-Gov. Jose Toledo, other officials and tribal archaeologist William Whatley began formal meetings with the park service about returning the skeletal remains dug up in the 1910s and 1920s at the long-deserted pueblo. Their meetings began after then-President George Bush signed the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990 into law. Tribal leaders pursued their goal with tribal and federal officials and museum representatives for nearly eight years, telling few outsiders of their efforts. It may not look like much, just some prickly pear cactus and a few piles of rock where massive stone walls once stood. But this might just be the American cowboy's birthplace - the roots of cowboy culture. For the better part of the past 200 years, locals have raided the massive ranch walls for stones. But in the last few years, people began bringing rocks back. Excavation of the T-Rex Centre began several weeks ago and organizers intend for the centre to be operational by the summer tourism season in the year 2000. The centre will become the newest stop on the Dinosaur Trail, which encourages people from around the world to view first-hand the fossils found in southwest Alberta and the northern American states. The T-Rex Centre will be the home of Scotty, the Tyrannosaurus Rex which was excavated in 1994, and is one of only a dozen nearly complete skeletons in the world. This centre will also serve as a research facility and it will be a base from which visitors can begin their own excursions to other attractions in the area. It was January 1980. A strange black box with aluminum antlers arrived _ a thing, they'd heard, that never stopped talking. Today, Arctic Village (population 96) young are so drawn by television that they have no time to learn ancient hunting methods, their parents' language, their oral history. 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