Got CALICHE? http://www.swanet.org/caliche.html

An earlier SWA SASIG message, http://www.swanet.org/discussion/99/27.html, informed you about True Heritage Comics. Julian Matthews would like to hear from you if you have information about Estevanico. There is a bibliography at http://www.estevanico.org/bib.html, but Mr. Matthews is specifically interested to know if there are any recent books written for a juvenile audience? If you have information, please contact Julian Matthews at julianmatthews@yahoo.com.

SWA was amused by a letter received from http://www.discoveringarchaeology.com/. The magazine is offering to publish opportunities for laypeople to dig. They charge $4.25 per word (with rates running $250-350). In the Southwest, we offer http://www.swanet.org/jobs99.html. Right now, volunteers can sign up for PIT projects, or help SWA and AAS with the Arizona Historical Markers Project. No charge.

DESOLATE SPOT ONCE HELD PROMISE FOR A NATION 05/09/99 There's not much here, at this former railroad depot in a windswept desert: a mile or two of track leading nowhere, a few old locomotives that will never run. But thousands are expected to gather Monday anyway, to celebrate the promise this desolate spot had when America's first transcontinental railroad was completed 130 years ago. It was here that Congress decided the western line laid by the Central Pacific company and the eastern tracks put down by Union Pacific should be linked. At 12:47 p.m., the exact moment the final spike of gold was driven on May 10, 1869, a replica will be hammered into place before cheering crowds like those there 130 years ago. But visitors will have to leave Promontory Summit on the highway the only route home. "It was the silliest place to connect the tracks," said Bruce Powell, superintendent of Golden Spike National Park, which stages the annual reenactment. The decision, he said, was driven by a combination of happenstance and politics. The two companies were racing cross-country, one from San Francisco and the other from back East, driving their immigrant workers to lay down track as fast as they could. Rushing to capture the busy but untapped market in Salt Lake City, they actually passed in northern Utah, grading almost 200 parallel miles that were as little as ten feet apart in some spots. But the politicians, fearful of having to subsidize two railroads, stepped in. Congress decided the tracks should connect exactly midway between the two endpoints, then 60 miles apart. That spot was Promontory Summit. Rosewood rails connected the last few feet, and with the two competitor's "Jupiter" engines facing each other on the tracks, the real final spike _ actually an ordinary spike that followed the golden one _ was driven as the country listened via the brand-new transcontinental telegraph. Even then, the area was virtually empty. Even the tent city the workers built along the track never turned into a real town, the way others did across the West. A year after the first golden spike ceremony, the central rail connection moved to Ogden, about 45 miles southeast. In 1901, the Central Pacific's Jupiter engine was scrapped for iron; Union Pacific's went two years later. In 1904, a rail trestle across the end of the Great Salt Lake cut more than 40 miles of the north-south route and made the Promontory Summit line a dead end. As a final blow, the old rails were ripped up in 1942 for the war effort. The last spike was sent to Stanford University. "Things change in the industry," said Powell. "It's been changing for 130 years. ... Even Amtrak's been consolidating," he said, dropping the passenger route through Ogden and paring Salt Lake's service down to a single line. But today, Promontory Summit will be as bustling as it once was. Replicas of the Jupiter engines will face each other on the tracks, the descendants of the Chinese and Irish workers who did the backbreaking work of laying the rails in attendance, and hundreds of visitors posing in a reenactment of a now-famous photograph taken this day 130 years ago.

HIGHWAY BYPASS THREATENS HISTORIC TRAIL 05/09/99 A proposed highway bypass threatens to destroy a segment of historic trail used by the tragic Donner Party and thousands of other California-bound pioneers last century. The Oregon-California Trails Association and U.S. Forest Service are protesting Caltrans' Highway 267 bypass project just east of Truckee, saying it would destroy about 100 yards of the California Trail and block access to other nearby trail remnants. "It's a tragedy," said trail researcher Don Wiggins of Reno, Nev. "There will be very large adverse effects on the trail and we want Caltrans to recognize that, take responsibility and do some things to mitigate the damage." Caltrans officials did not return phone calls. Caltrans documents acknowledge the trail's historic importance, but conclude the segment's destruction is acceptable because other portions exist in the West. In addition, Caltrans notes other nearby sections of the trail have already been destroyed by subdivisions, roads and pipelines. "That argument says if you've lost a finger it's acceptable to chop off an arm," said Tom Hunt of the trails association. "This segment of the trail is important precisely because of what it is and where it is _ near an urban area where people may enjoy it and learn its story." The project still requires the approval of the Federal Highway Administration and California State Historic Preservation Office. Hunt and other members of his group have asked Caltrans to provide hiker parking and access for other nearby trail remnants if the bypass can't be rerouted. The trail segment is located between Interstate 80 and the Truckee River. It was discovered in 1996, the 150th anniversary of the Donner Party's ordeal in the Sierra. The party spent the winter of 1846-47 in the Truckee area after becoming stranded by snow. Only about half of the party's 89 members survived, some by eating the flesh of the dead.

DISPUTE ERUPTS OVER ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCOVERIES 05/09/99 A dispute between the U.S. Army and a group seeking a legendary cache of gold on White Sands Missile Range has spilled over to a historic battlefield. The latest skirmish is over who should receive credit for archaeological discoveries at Hembrillo Battlefield, near Victorio Peak. The Ova Noss Family Partnership, persistent seekers of fabled lost gold inside Victorio Peak, contends Letha Guthrie, Ova Noss' daughter, discovered the battlefield in the late 1930s. But the Army contends its geologists and researchers have done much of the work that uncovered relics at the battlefield. Hembrillo Basin was the site of an intense battle April 6, 1880, between U.S. Cavalry Buffalo Soldiers and Apache warriors led by Chief Victorio. Artifacts including shell casings, uniform buttons, cavalry insignia and an anvil were found at the site. The battlefield documentation project began in 1988, and research is still going on, the Army said. Partnership officials said they paid thousands of dollars in 1992 to uncover what is now considered historic treasure. "We paid for every cent of that," said Terry Delonas, partnership general manager. "Out of our own pocket we spent $168,000 for archeological monitoring at Victorio Peak and the battlefield. It was my aunt, Letha, who first found the battlefield as a girl," he said. "It's unfortunate that because of the legal problems that we've had with the Army they fail to at least acknowledge that fact. For whatever reasons, they don't want to give credit where proper credit is due," Delonas said. The partnership did provide some assistance, Robert Burton, a White Sands Missile Range geologists, said in a deposition filed with the U.S. Court of Federal Claims. "When the proposal to metal-detect in the vicinity was put forward, we were concerned about the fact that there were small pieces of metal that probably were left over from the battle, and we were concerned that they not be picked up or disturbed," Burton said. The partnership flagged areas where metal pieces were found, and the effort helped delineate the battle site, he said. "That's been a several-year effort, and we put considerable resources of our own into that investigation," Burton said. The partnership is making too much out of the issue, said Larry Furrow, a White Sands spokesman. "The Army has never sought, then or now, any credit for discovering the battlefield," he said. The partnership will continue to press for an opportunity to return to Victorio Peak and search for any gold, Delonas said. The partnership sued in 1997 in the Court of Federal Claims, accusing the Army of breaking a 1991 licensing agreement that allowed the partnership to search the peak. A trial date has not been set, Delonas said. The last search was halted in March 1996 after the partnership refused to continue payments to the Army for support services provided at the peak. Partnership workers were removed from the peak by military police. Milton "Doc" Noss, a Truth or Consequences foot doctor, said he found stacks of gold _ as many as 16,000 bars _ hidden inside caverns in Victorio Peak in 1937. He said he accidentally sealed the path to the treasure while using dynamite to open the passage. Noss died in 1949. A few years later, his family, including widow Ova Noss, was ordered off the missile range when the Army expanded range boundaries to include the 400-foot limestone peak.

NAVAJO HOSPITAL, HEALERS STRIVE TO TREAT THE WHOLE PERSON 05/08/99 01:18AM Inside the modest stucco walls of the Winslow Indian Health Center, physicians are going about their business with stethoscopes, X-rays and blood samples. Across the parking lot _ in a carpeted, eight-sided ceremonial hogan _ Jones Benally is gazing into a crystal to discover what's wrong with his patient. Next to the hogan is a sweat lodge. Benally is known in Navajo society as a hataalii, a chanter or singer. His business card, printed on turquoise paper, identifies him as a "traditional medicine practitioner." Simply put, he is a medicine man. Patients often ask for both kinds of medicine. The medical staff a hodgepodge of ethnic heritages _ crosses the chasm between modern western medicine and ancient Navajo medicine here every day with seemingly little conflict. Benally isn't fond of pills, but he doesn't talk against them to his patients. Dr. Frank Armao, a psychiatrist, is quick to list the benefits of Benally's presence. "For this culture, medicine people have done a wonderful job because it's what the people believe," Armao said. He said he definitely believes miraculous recoveries can happen when Navajo people cure themselves with the help of traditional healers. "Healing has to start at some level," he said. "And medicine men help people go into a healthy place inside the self." As a team, the health care staff can oversee the entire treatment plan and be aware of herbs prescribed and possible interactions with medicines. If a patient sees a medicine person 60 miles away, the communication is apt to break down. The patient also saves time and money and avoids transportation hassles with Benally right there. The Winslow model of integrated practices first began as a pilot project in 1997 and has gained international recognition. It is reportedly the first IHS facility in the nation to hire a medicine man. Benally works three days a week and spends an hour with each patient. The patients in the clinic spend maybe 10 minutes with a physician. Benally's specialty is crystals. He knows a host of ceremonies _ he is secretive about how many _ and he has been in practice since age 10. He learned from his relatives. Due to time constraints, he sometimes refers his patients to other healers for ceremonies. The Sand Painting ceremony, for example, takes as little as two hours. The Ye'ii Bicheii ceremony can last more than a week. Prayers, songs, corn pollen, herbal medicine, incense, emetics, eagle feathers and arrowheads form the traditional Indian pharmacy or "medicine chest." The three main categories of Navajo ceremonies are the Blessing Way, the Protection Way and the Healing Way. In the view of native healing sciences, people become sick after violating natural laws. Anglos often call these taboos. Navajo traditionalists prefer to call them values. Sickness can even originate from the patient's improper conduct or from contact with dangerous things. It's believed evil people can afflict others with sickness through witchcraft. The purpose behind ceremonies is to rebalance the mind and to treat the whole person regardless of the location of the pain. Naturally, people unfamiliar with Navajo beliefs wonder how Anglo physicians can put stock in the so-called "superstitious" traditional ways. Not all physicians do. The IHS must recruit open-minded health professionals and then train them to show respect for native healing regardless of their convictions. It's not as unusual as one might think. Physicians who don't believe in the power of Christian prayer would be out of line to forbid a patient to visit a minister. Increasingly, the complex patchwork of ethnic groups in the United States is placing physicians in situations that require cultural sensitivity. Non-Navajo physicians and nurses undergo cultural orientation, so they know, for example, that patients who enter the hospital covered in ashes should not be bathed. The ashes must remain on the body four days after the purification ceremony. In his review of 31 patient charts, Armao found the median age of people who saw Benally was 49. Only seven patients were less than 35 years old. Most were women: 22 females as compared to 9 males. Reasons for the visit ranged from pain (67 percent), to mental health (16 percent). Benally said he has yet to see a slump in clinic visits or decreased compliance with medications. At Northern Navajo Medical Center in Shiprock, N.M., the ceremonial hogan often sits empty aside from its potbelly stove. Patient representative Ida Bradley said during the summertime it's used more often than in winter. Still, the hogan is used only about eight times a year. "Sometimes it's easier and it's faster for a medicine man to come inside the medical center and do a short prayer for the patient, maybe a 10-minute prayer," she said. "But if it's going to be a ceremony that lasts an hour or two more, maybe up to four hours, if the patient is stable then that's when they might want to use the hogan." "There are people who don't use the Navajo medicine anymore and only utilize the Western medicine," Bradley said. "However, a large majority of the people still hang on to the traditional values and beliefs. It just didn't seem right that we should have a Navajo hospital without a hogan."

http://flash.al.com/cgi-bin/al_nview.pl?/home1/wire/AP/Stream-Parsed/GENERAL/a0450_PM_Yippee-AiYarner Trimble shows a black-and-white sketch of an Arizona "chip seal.'' Millions of years ago, he says, Arizona was covered with water, but when it receded to California, not all ocean animals wanted to leave. A few seals were determined to stay. But without water, they shrunk to itty-bitty animals, about the size of a pebble. And, he says, leaning toward the microphone, when the wagons came, they squished the little chip seals, paving all of Arizona. Trimble faces a battle trying to educate Arizonans about their history. The state's population has grown by more than 2 million since 1980, by 1.1 million since 1990. "The place is booming. A lot of people are coming to make money, not to get the ambiance of the place,'' he says. "That comes later."

http://www.azcentral.com:80/news/0510historic.shtml There's a cloud of uncertainty over Phoenix's commitment to its heritage.

http://www.latimes.com:80/excite/990508/t000041296.html What fans seem to miss most about the ranch is its evocation of a mythical, simpler, less ambiguous time, when all you needed to know about a man was the color of his hat.

http://www.latimes.com:80/excite/990510/tCB0040726.html The New Buffalo Soldiers are amateur historians who memorialize Company H of the 10th Regiment of the U.S. Cavalry between 1866 and 1871. In the days of the Western pioneers, 80% of the cowboys were composed of blacks, Hispanics and Native Americans. You don't see it portrayed that way in the popular Western movies."

http://www.azstarnet.com/public/dnews/115-6914.html Ralph H. Baker, a longtime Tucson resident who founded the nation's first Mountain Men re-enactors club, died Wednesday. He was 81.

http://www.nando.com/noframes/story/0,2107,47047-75960-543142-0,00.html The 69-year-old retired archaeologist is well-known for his impressive collections of Gold Rush artifacts.

http://www.sfgate.com:80/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/1999/05/06/SP46139.DTL Coastal and Central Valley native Americans once met regularly for councils and trading sessions near this distinctive site. They left their own art in rock paintings called "pictoglyphs."

http://www.dailysouthtown.com/southtown/dsnews/101nd2.htm Dave Carroll found actual images of Jesse James and three members of his infamous bank-robbing gang. That makes them worth a fortune. He has completed his own book, "The Complete Photographic History of Geronimo," a compendium of all 385 known photographs of the chief of the Apache tribe of Native Americans. The book is being published by the Texas Tech University Press.

http://www.sacbee.com/news/calreport/calrep_story.cgi?N220.HTML The grave marker of a Chester County Civil War veteran is headed safely to a historical preservation group after it was nearly sold over the Internet by a New Jersey antiques dealer.

http://www.nandotimes.com/noframes/story/0,2107,47131-76073-544694-0,00.html The addiction museum, in Arlington, Va., is the newest arrival among about 8,200 American museums, according to Edward H. Able Jr., head of the American Association of Museums. There may be even more if local history centers and such institutions as the Museum of Bagpipe Music in Ellicott City, Md., and the Cockroach Hall of Fame in Plano, Texas, are counted.

http://www2.startribune.com/stOnLine/cgi-bin/article?thisStory=75741190 Hung from wooden clothes pins and tied around pillars, the 150 aprons are part of a traveling exhibit called "Apron Strings: Ties to the Past" at the Rock County Historical Society museum. "It's a historic overview of aprons and how people used them," said Laurel Fant, curator of collections.

http://www.ardemgaz.com/today/nat/adeaker10.html Local officials have persuaded the National Park Service to take a second look at converting archaeological sites at the former Eaker Air Force Base into a national park.

http://www.nandotimes.com/noframes/story/0,2107,46799-75555-499009-0,00.html Archeologists reconstruct life of 18th century skeleton.

Interesting jobs in Anthropology:

The Technology Network announced the selection of Roberta Katz as its new president. Katz has her J.D. from the University of Washington School of Law, a Ph.D. in Anthropology from Columbia University and a B.A. from Stanford University. TechNet works to pass federal and state laws that will benefit technology enterprises. For more information, see http://www.technetwork.org

At the MTV Networks, research is not a back-room operation. MTV thrives on being hip, and even hires cultural anthropologists to visit teen-agers' rooms and pick through their closets. http://www.newspage.com/