May 1999 Arizona Archaeological Society PETROGLYPH now on line (214K)

VISIONARIES, SCOUNDRELS AND GAMBLERS BUILT COLORADO 04/28/99 Ask leading historians to name Colorado's top 10 builders and the list quickly grows to 50 people. The list includes visionaries, scoundrels and gamblers. It includes men like William Bent, who bridged the gap between the Indians and white settlers; Horace Tabor, who found millions of dollars in gold and silver and lost it all; and Robert "Boss" Speer, who built Denver the City Beautiful and won re-election by voting the Kansas City phone book. It also includes women, Hispanics and blacks: People like Owl Woman, wife of William Bent, who helped cement a cross-cultural partnership; Jim Beckwourth, the black mountain man and founder of Pueblo; and Governor Anza, who led a Spanish expeditionary force to Colorado. "It was a motley crew that settled Colorado. They weren't from the First Families of this nation. That was the strength of Colorado," said Duane Smith, professor of history and southwest studies at Fort Lewis College. "The story is that there were so many different people, and why they came together, men and women who made this state," said David Halaas, state historian. Halaas said many of the lives are intertwined, each building on the accomplishments of predecessors. Bent, who built his fort on the Arkansas River, on the Plains, forged a treaty for trading with the Indians and a new route for the Santa Fe Trail. Kit Carson, his associate, blazed the trails that gold miners followed into the mountains. Tabor used his new-found wealth from silver to build a post office and opera house, making Denver into the Queen City of the Plains. But it was the discovery of gold that turned Colorado from a backwater into a diamond in the rough, said Neal Reynolds, a Leadville lawyer who conducts tours of the city's mining sites, including Tabor's Matchless Mine. "It was gold that brought everybody here," silver that kept them here, and Tabor who used his wealth to build monuments, Reynolds said. "He was very philanthropic, but he wanted his name on everything," Reynolds said, including the Tabor Opera House, the Tabor Grand Hotel and mansions and a post office in Denver. "Everything he did was big, even when he lost it all," he said. Working beside the miners were women like Tabor's first wife, Augusta, who fed miners on dry beef and apples, cut up their wagon for tables and benches, and went on to become a millionaire in her own right after her divorce. When Colorado became a state in 1876, people like William Byers stepped up to make sure the nation respected its newest entry. "It was Byers who published the gold rush and promoted the building of Denver," Halaas said. When Colorado's turnstile immigrants balked at building a new jail, he built it himself. He called for reading rooms and churches. Byers also "lied like hell," telling people there was no need to lock their doors while at the same time being a prominent member of the city's vigilante committee, Halaas said. The growing community brought the railroads and John Evans, who fumed when Denver was bypassed for Cheyenne and the transcontinental railway, and who became the architect of Colorado's railway to Cheyenne. That gave the state access to the supplies it needed for miners and an outlet for the wealth that resulted, bringing a great economic boom for cattle barons like John Iliff, and the sugar magnate Charles Boettcher. What Tabor started and Byers promoted, Boss Speer turned into an art form. Clark Secrest, a writer for the Colorado Historical Society, said Speer had a vision of the city beautiful, and built parks and parkways, "all of which led to his cronies' residential land developments." "He said if you're going to be a boss, you ought to be a good one," Secrest said. "His motto was vote early and vote often," said Smith, and he lived up to his motto, voting the Kansas City phone book one year. "Colorado had a goodly amount of scoundrels," Smith said. After World War II, other visionaries stepped forward. Minot Dole, a member of the Army's 10th Mountain Division, is credited with starting Colorado's ski industry and was "the first to see the potential for recreation," Reynolds said. Dr. Florence Sabin modernized Colorado's health laws and earned herself a statue in the gallery of heroes in the nation's Capitol. Smith said Colorado is facing another transition as it enters the 21st Century, every bit as big as the one that made its fortune, with a whole new set of pioneers. It was started by businesspeople Bill Daniels, the telecommunications visionary who saw cables carrying television signals into every home, starting a growth industry that is bringing a new wave of immigrants who telecommute to jobs far away. "I see great changes coming," Smith said. "Colorado is becoming a place where you can live here and not work here. We have a quality of life people want. You're going to see a lot more growth in this state. "I see us moving from being isolated from the world, to being a big player in the world," Smith said.

JUDGE GIVES SPAIN RIGHTS TO SHIP THAT MAY BE LOADED WITH GOLD 04/30/99 A Virginia-based salvage company has no rights to a centuries-old sunken Spanish warship that may be laden with gold because the ship still belongs to Spain, a federal judge ruled. The ruling by Norfolk federal Judge J. Calvitt Clarke Jr. ends an ongoing dispute between Spain and the Chincoteague-based salvage company Sea Hunt over who owns the warship Juno. Clarke's decision gives Spain permanent possession of the Juno, which disappeared off the Eastern Shore in 1802 with almost 435 passengers and, according to some accounts, as much as $500 million in coins and precious metals. Sea Hunt officials discovered the wreck they believed to be the Juno several years ago less than a mile offshore. But soon after, Spanish officials challenged the company in court, saying the ship was never technically abandoned and they still owned it. Sea Hunt leader Ben D. Benson called the case's outcome disappointing. "We're the ones who spent the time and effort to find the ship, and it's given to a country that never lifted a finger to find it," Benson said. He said his company has spent more than $1 million mining the Atlantic graveyards of the Juno and another ship, La Galga, that also sank off the Eastern Shore near Assateague. Clarke's ruling gives Sea Hunt rights to La Galga. But unlike the Juno, La Galga was not known to have been carrying any treasure at the time it sank. Clarke based his ruling on the 1763 treaty that ended the French and Indian War. Under the terms of the treaty, he ruled, Spain is the rightful owner of Spanish ships that sank off the U.S. coast after 1763. Spain has no claim to La Galga because it sank in 1750, 13 years before the treaty, he said. Though Spain won control of the Juno, Clarke's ruling means the nation loses all future claims to Spanish ships that sunk before 1763. For that reason, Spanish officials may want to appeal, even though they won control of the Juno, said James Goold, a Washington lawyer who represented Spain in the ownership dispute. Benson doesn't plan to appeal. But, he said, he will submit a request for Spain to reimburse him for his costs. Lawyers for Spain said reimbursement isn't likely. "We certainly know of no basis (on which) they could be awarded salvage fees," Goold said. "You have to have permission of the owner to salvage. Sea Hunt knows it did not have the permission of Spain.",1249,80001894,00.html? Prehistory doesn't come in neat packages. It comes in bits and pieces that must be cataloged, in layers and layers that must be sorted through, says Ron Rood, assistant state archaeologist, who has put together the youth volunteer program at the Utah State Historical Society.,1249,80001893,00.html? During Utah Prehistory and Heritage Week, and in fact the whole month, a number of events have been planned statewide to call attention to Utah's ancient heritage.,1249,80001260,00.html? "Every time some bones are found in southern Utah, it could be Everett," or at least so people think, noted Rusho, a Salt Lake writer and editor. Garfield County Sheriff Than Cooper would agree. "We had a gravesite that was tore up this spring, and when we went in we thought, 'Maybe it's Everett,' " he said. It turned out to be an older, probably Fremont Indian, burial. Hundreds of articles, dozens of books, and an unbroken chorus of park rangers still present the last thousand years of native Southwestern society as happy, its peaceful people in harmony with their environment. Peace no more. At the turn of our millennium, the ancient Southwest is beset by famine, flood, and war. War is unnatural, and not part of white America's romantic vision of the ancient Southwest. But recent archaeological studies now reveal that warfare--and worse--was common practice in the ancient Southwest. The papers were all that remained of an 1863 treaty that not only stopped intertribal fighting among the Pimas, Maricopas and three other tribes but brought protection for settlers trudging through Arizona on their way to California gold mines. The treaty was missing for 77 years and resurfaced in 1940, when a group of Maricopas and Pimas decided to raise money for an annual Five Tribes Treaty of Peace Day by letting people see what was left of the historic document. Albert French, a 75-year Maricopa historian who helped organize the first event in 1940, thinks the actual treaty is being stored in Yuma or by the Mormon Church. French wants the treaty to be remembered by Indians and non-Indians alike. Chiefs and subchiefs of the Pima, Maricopa, Yuma, Chemehuevi and Hualapai tribes traveled to Yuma in April 1863 and spent four days there agreeing to pledge their peace and friendship toward each other and to help protect settlers against other tribes, such as the Apaches. Several months later, 98 Maricopas and 86 Pimas mustered in to companies B and C of the Home Guard, a forerunner to the Arizona National Guard. Their services were needed because many regular troops were fighting the Civil War. Company A consisted of Anglos and Mexicans. Arizona was then a part of New Mexico. With a doughnut-shaped machine normally used to X-ray humans for trauma, spinal injuries and cancer, staff members at Santa Barbara's Sansum Medical Clinic scanned two blocks of compacted earth excavated 40 years ago from a gully on Santa Rosa Island. The blocks contain, a team of scientists believes, the oldest human remains ever found in North America. The carvings consist of dozens of symbols, or glyphs, believed to have been made by ancestors of American Indian tribes. The invention of cooking sparked the evolution of modern human social and sexual behavior in which males and females pair up, according to Harvard anthropologist Richard Wrangham and colleagues. In a forthcoming issue of Current Anthropology, they argue that cooking arose among early Homo erectus about 1.9 million years ago. Because cooking necessitated collecting food in one place rather than eating it where it was found, there was the risk of theft. When males stole food from females, the latter responded by offering food and sexual favors to males who would protect them.

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