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MUSEUM WOULD TELL STORY OF FIRST COAST-TO-COAST HIGHWAY 03/29/99 01:50PM This northern Ohio city is aiming to become a center of pre-superhighway information. A campaign is under way to raise money for a museum honoring the importance of the Lincoln Highway in two buildings on the public square of Galion, 54 miles north of Columbus. The nation's first paved coast-to-coast highway, connecting New York and San Francisco, was completed in 1913. Unlike other roads of the time, the Lincoln Highway was designed with tourism in mind and was heavily promoted with tours, guidebooks and even commemorative cigars. Much of the road followed what is now U.S. 30 and passed through several northern Ohio communities, including Galion. Craig Harmon, who is leading the museum effort, bought an option on a former hotel earlier this month at a sheriff's sale and is trying to raise $63,900 by April 19 to buy it outright. The other building is being vacated by a furniture store, and Harmon is negotiating to buy it. "People these days take good roads for granted, but it's hard to imagine how important a road like the Lincoln Highway was," Harmon said. "Celebrations occurred whenever a part of the highway was completed and there were at least five cross-country tours that brought attention to the highway between 1914 and 1925." One of those tours, by a convoy of Army vehicles in 1919, included a future president, Dwight Eisenhower. "It took 62 days to cross the country, and reporters followed the tour and wrote stories about it every day," Harmon said. "About 3 1/2 million people showed up to watch the convoy." Another tour in 1924 included the 10 millionth Model T Ford to be built. The car passed through Galion even though a straightening of U.S. 30 had caused the highway to bypass the city in 1920. Nearly four score years later, on Abraham Lincoln's birthday, Galion marked the highway's 85th anniversary with a Lincoln look-alike and a presentation by Harmon on a two-month research trip he made along the route of the old road last year. Harmon, 43, a self-employed graphic designer, has made replicas of the original Lincoln Highway markers _ red-white-and blue striped signs with a blue "L" in the middle. He first became interested in the highway after being asked to make the signs, then traveling to San Francisco on business. "After what I'd done with the markers, I visited the San Francisco library to see what they had about the highway and got hooked," Harmon said. "It's become _ not an obsession with me _ but certainly a passion." He said he's sold several hundred of the markers and plans to place them in all the states the highway crosses: New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, Wyoming, Utah, Nevada and California. At the February meeting in Galion, he also signed up 250 area residents as members of the Lincoln Highway Association, a tourism group created at the same time the road was being built and revived earlier this decade. It has almost 1,500 members nationwide and is helping Harmon collect highway artifacts to place in the museum. One of his most recent finds was a box filled with Lincoln Highway brand cigars from the mid-1940s. The cigars were among the most unusual promotions for the highway, which was financed in large part by auto companies and communities through which it passed. The Lincoln Highway first was envisioned by Indianapolis businessman Carl G. Fisher, who also founded the Indianapolis Motor Speedway and Daytona Beach, Fla. The highway followed state roads through New Jersey, picked up what's now U.S. 30 _ also known as the old Salt Lake Trail _ in Pennsylvania and followed that road into Utah. The rest of the highway included parts of the current U.S. 40 and U.S. 50 in Utah, Nevada and California. Harmon said that once he completes the purchase of the two buildings on the square, he hopes to collect $250,000 to bring the hotel into compliance with building codes. Then he will begin placement of items in the museum. He'd like the building's centerpiece to be a replica of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington made entirely of pennies. He's asking people to donate 2 cents apiece to the effort and carries a container with him everywhere so people can deposit their coins. "It's a bit of a pipe dream, but so is this whole museum," he said. "And it's no more of a crazy idea than the Lincoln Highway was 85 years ago."

STEAM ENGINE ROLLS THROUGH DENVER, WOWING RAILROAD BUFFS 03/29/99 12:37PM It has been idle for almost 40 years, but on Sunday one of the world's last "Big Boy" steam engines began its journey from one Denver museum to another, wowing railroad buffs as it slowly chugged along. "Oh, it's tremendous," said Steve Hudson of Thornton as he watched the 600-ton steam locomotive roll by. "When was the last time a Big Boy actually went across this roadway? It'll never happen again. They're the last of their kind." About 100 volunteers, many of them old railroad men, helped move Locomotive 4005 from the Forney Transportation Museum near Elitch Gardens to a lottrain's move to a new museum, a converted warehouse at 4303 Brighton Blvd., will be completed next month. Brakemen on Sunday inched along with the 58-year-old steam engine as it was being towed to make sure each wheel stayed on the worn rails during the short, half-mile trip. Two men greased the driver wheels. Workers and volunteers will pry up the old track, lay it farther north and connect the Big Boy to the Burlington Northern main line, so the train can complete its journey, said Jack Forney, who inherited the steam engine from his industrialist father. The move to the train's new quarters will cost $125,000. Built in 1941, Big Boy carried freight at speeds above over 80 mph through much of the country's West. During World War II, it carried American troops to both coasts. There are only seven other Big Boy steam locomotives left. "This was the epitome of large steam engines, the most efficient of the largest engines ever built," said Forney historian Russ Rigtrup, happy to get a new, larger, indoor space for the train, where it will be shielded from the elements. The train has eight driver wheels on either side, each 68 inches in diameter. It is 133 feet long and produced 6,000 horsepower, Rigtrup said. Seattle-based sports chain Recreation Recreational Equipment Inc. is spending $42 million to renovate the existing Forney Museum, which was first used as the utility plant for the old Denver trolley company, Forney said. The site will be turned into a new superstore. They money will be used for underground parking, environmental cleanup and preservation of the building's historic character.

TINY KERNEL REVEALING HISTORY OF HUMANS IN THE NEW WORLD 03/29/99 08:54AM A tiny corn kernel is rewriting human history in the New World. The kernel _ from a cob about the size of a child's finger _ was discovered by University of California, Berkeley archaeologist M. Steven Shackley and two University of New Mexico colleagues last summer in a cave thousands of feet above the Arizona desert. Radiocarbon analysis at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory shows the kernel is 3,690 years old. That makes it the oldest corn ever discovered in the United States and the oldest ever found anywhere outside central Mexico, where corn has been dated back 4,700 years. The discovery _ along with other new archaeological evidence of 3,000-year-old human villages and irrigation canals near Tucson uncovered during construction of Interstate 10 _ have switched archaeology's focus from New Mexico and the Colorado plateau to southern Arizona as the cradle of early farming in the Southwest. "The Southwest has been continuously inhabited at least 12,000 years, but these discoveries are pushing back in time the transition to agriculture and village life," said Jonathan Mabry, a Tucson archaeologist who made some of the village discoveries. "These finds have made a lot of textbooks obsolete," he added. The discoveries also provide clues to the origin of the people the Navajos call the Anasazi, who created the cliff dwellings of Mesa Verde in Colorado and the pueblos in Chaco Canyon, N.M. Archaeologists are beginning to believe the Anasazi may have been the descendants of those early farmers around Tucson and their ancestors who farmed in canyons of the Southwest and Northern Mexico, Shackley said. Shackley discovered the corn with two University of New Mexico Maxwell Museum colleagues, archaeologist Bruce Huckell and his wife, Lisa Huckell, a paleoethnobotanist. Their search brought them for the last two summers to McEuen Cave in the Gila Mountains, about 70 miles northeast of Tucson. Corn residue has been found in Panama roughly dated from 5,000 to 6,000 years old, and experts believe corn probably originated as a tropical grass somewhere in Central America. "The McEuen Cave discovery is another piece of information that indicates that maize arrived in the Southwest much earlier than we used to think _ now obviously at least 4,000 years ago _ and that brought rapid changes in the way people lived," Shackley said. "We now know that by 3,000 years ago, these hunter gatherers settled down and lived in farming villages," he said. "That's a very new idea." Their discovery also brings smiles to the Hopi, whose language traces back to Uto-Aztecan and who are among the most likely descendants of the ancient farmers. "To the Hopi, in our belief system, corn is very, very old. Now science is proving it to be as old as we have always believed," says Leigh J. Kuwanwisiwma, director of the Hopi Cultural Preservation office in Kykotsmovi, Ariz.

NEWS SHORTS 03/29/99 06:40AM CLARKDALE, Ariz. Five miles from Clarkdale, in the Verde River Valley, is the Tuzigoot National Monument covering 43 acres. Established in 1939, its main feature is the excavated ruin of a Sinagua Indian pueblo, or village, dating back to A.D. 1400. The museum here displays artifacts such as pottery, stone and horn implements, basketry, stone objects and turquoise jewelry.

AMATEUR ASTRONOMER TRYING TO DETERMINE IF INDIAN ROCK CARVING MARKS 03/29/99 12:39AM When the sun came up, some 12 hours past the vernal equinox, amateur archaeo-astronomer John Rudolph was looking toward the Cascade Mountains from the northeast corner of Agate Point on Bainbridge Island. Hundreds of years ago, aboriginal Americans may have stood in full ceremonial garb at the same spot, welcoming the season we call spring and perhaps inviting a renewal of the earth's quarterly cycle of change. Rudolph was hoping to witness what those still unknown tribes witnessed, and what he believes will be another piece of the jigsaw he's been putting together for more than 10 years. It's a puzzle in the shape of a dense sandstone boulder known as Haleets Rock. The rock is five feet tall and by seven feet long. It sits about 100 feet offshore, often submerged at high tide. It presents to each morning's rising sun a chorus of bizarre and sometimes barnacle-covered faces, carved by an unknown hand at an uncertain time. Rudolph's first clue to the possible purpose of the carvings, which are native American, came on the autumnal equinox in September 1997. On a hunch he decided to watch the sunrise from behind the rock, "and by golly here comes the sun, right out of the deepest notch in the Cascades." It was the sort of geographic alignment _ the notch was actually the Skykomish Valley running up toward Stevens Pass _ that suggested seasons were being marked, and on that basis Rudolph began to look at the stone in a new light. "In my investigations at other sites in the Northwest I've found that there are places that are embellished with petroglyphs where you can stand and the sun will rise from or set on significant features on the horizon," said Rudolph, who believes that is the purpose of Haleets Rock. A year and a half from that first discovery, the series of faces makes more sense. Not only can Rudolph point to what he believes are a series of representative markings keeping track of the three full moons that make up each season, but also notations counting off the eight 45-day solar months that make up a year. He has summed up his findings, in part, in this way: "Near the center of the composition on the rock we have what looks like a sunburst with eight rays. To the right are three faces. There are three full moons from the summer solstice to the equinox. The face at the far right has above it an arc with a round object at each end and at the center. This may represent the sun moving along the horizon from summer solstice to equinox to winter solstice." The Suquamish Indian tribe claims the rock and the carvings as part of its heritage. "It's definitely Suquamish _ it's right in the middle of our territory," explained Suquamish Museum curator and archivist Charlie Sigo. "It's a sacred site and it's something to be protected." As for theories on the meaning of the carvings: "You read a lot in books about the petroglyph and what could be happening in it, but I've never really been satisfied with what's been put forward," said Sigo, who added that because the carvings face the water rather than the land "it could perhaps be a boundary marker, I'm not real sure." He doesn't rule out the celestial calendar stone theory, but neither does he endorse it. Not that Rudolph is claiming the final word. "A lot of people will spout theories on very slim evidence. I like to approach these things cautiously," said Rudolph. "Even though I think I have a handle on what these figures represent, it takes a real arrogance _ which I hope I lack _ to absolutely state: this is the way it is, folks." Rudolph describes himself as "an investigator and amateur archaeo-astronomer" and in addition to his professional life as an architect works with the Battle Point Astronomical Association as vice president and facilities director. "I was married to a lady for 10 years who was an anthropologist who was deeply involved in petroglyphs," explained Rudolph when asked how his interest was sparked. "And I think I've always been interested in ancient stuff." Although he was searching for further clues this morning to the mystery that is Haleets Rock, he does not expect that he will ever figure it all out. "These were not planetary bodies (to the people who made the carvings) but deities and mysterious personages, powerful beings who inhabited the sky. "Will I figure out what it all means? I doubt it."

Date: Tue Mar 30 11:52:48 1999 From: ("Popplestone, Ann") Subject: [SACC-L] skull replicas The Discovery Channel catalog (1-800-938-0333) has half scale replicas of A afarensis (#136796 $59.00) A boisei (#136804 $59.99) H erectus (#136788 $59.00) and H neanderthalensis (sic) (#136770 $59.99)