HUNLEY GRAVES MAY BE IN END ZONE OF CITADEL STADIUM 03/11/99 The mass grave of the first ill-fated crew of the Confederate submarine Hunley may have been found _ near the end zone of The Citadel's football stadium. If the 6-by-15 foot trench holds what investigators expect, the bodies would be dug up, memorialized and reburied in a Confederate cemetery alongside those of other drowned crew members, said state Sen. Glenn McConnell, R-Charleston, and chairman of the Hunley Commission. "This is a big jump for us," McConnell said Tuesday. "If it is what we are looking for, it completes another part of the missing puzzle. These valiant men deserve a better burial site than the concrete floor of a football stadium." The sailors died when the submarine sank at its mooring in 1863 after waves flooded into an open hatch. The bodies were recovered and reportedly buried near what is now the alumni room at Johnson Hagood Stadium. The land at the time was the destitute mariners' graveyard. "They had a Confederate graveyard and unfortunately ... through a series of errors, their grave sites were desecrated and built upon," McConnell said. "Our mission is to bring the whole Hunley crew home to be buried together. It will give generations the opportunity to come visit and remember their great sacrifice." Jonathan Leader, deputy state archaeologist at the University of South Carolina in Columbia, said readings of the contours and definition of the trench are very detailed. He said he is optimistic they are signs of the missing graves. "It is a huge maybe ... but we think we are sitting on top of them," Leader said. Ultimately, the Hunley sank three times, the last on the night of Feb. 17, 1864, after sinking the Union blockade vessel Housatonic off Charleston Harbor. The sub was located in 1995 four miles offshore, 30 feet below the surface. It is expected to be raised next year and placed on display in Charleston.

HOUSE PASSES BILL TO HELP SCOTTSDALE SMITHSONIAN PROJECT 03/11/99 A plan to make it easier for a proposed Scottsdale Smithsonian-linked museum project to use public funding won approval in the state House. The House voted 33-26 on Wednesday in favor of a bill (HB2575) making changes in a theme park funding mechanism developers hope to use for the "Canals at Scottsdale" project. The plan would allow the project to use its own sales tax revenues _ up to $300 million _ to help pay for itself. Promoters have said the anchor of the 45-acre project would be a satellite Smithsonian museum in what is now a vacant shopping mall in downtown Scottsdale. Theaters and shops would be linked by a series of canals to create a Venice-like effect. However, a Smithsonian Institution official said Wednesday that the link with his organization has been overstated repeatedly and that if Mayor Sam Campana and others don't stop, that tenuous link may be cut. The Smithsonian tentatively agreed to loan artifacts to the Museum of Progress, a private Scottsdale group hoping to house the museum in the project, but "we are in no part connected with this waterfront project," Carrigan said. Campana denied having misused reference to the Smithsonian to gain political leverage or in any other improper way. Critics said losing up to $300 million in tax money would hurt the state more than the canal project would help it. Phoenix leaders said it's unfair to Phoenix museums as well. "If it goes forward, it will be the most successful raid on the public treasury that Arizona has ever seen," said Rep. Steve May, R-Phoenix, whose district includes downtown Scottsdale. He voted against the bill. Supporters said the bill would put more limits on using tax money than are currently in state law. "If this bill doesn't pass, it actually takes more money out of the general fund," said Rep. Barbara Leff, R-Paradise Valley.

NAVAJO BAND WANTS NEW NAME 03/11/99 The Canoncito Band of Navajos wants to reduce the number of Canoncitos in New Mexico from six to five. The band, which lives away from the larger Four Corners reservation, has asked to change its name to To'hajiilee, the traditional Navajo name for the community. The Navajo Nation voted 71-0 for the change last week. Now Congress must amend the 1949 law that set aside the Canoncito reservation about 30 miles west of Albuquerque. Only then would the name change be recognized and reflected on highway signs and maps, Secatero said. The tribe's young people pushed for the name change, said Canoncito Chapter President Tony Secatero. The area's high school already is named To'hajiilee. "It's the wishes of the kids, the wishes of the students," Secatero said. "Canoncito, it's a Spanish name. They wanted to go back to Navajo." To'hajiilee translates as "lifting water up by a rope in a container" _ or as Secatero puts it, "a place where you dip for water." The name refers to natural wells that dotted the area when the Navajos first inhabited the land. New Mexico has a number of communities called Canoncito, Spanish for "little canyon." One lies along Interstate 25 in Santa Fe County between Santa Fe and Glorieta, one is in Bernalillo County north of Cedar Crest, one is in Taos County along the Rio Hondo, another in Rio Arriba County is a few houses near the village of Dixon, and one in San Miguel County is a small settlement off a dirt road about 10 miles north of Storrie Lake.

GROUP ASKS COURT TO TOSS OUT VOLUNTARY CLIMBING BAN AT DEVILS TOWER 03/11/99 A government policy discouraging climbers from scaling Wyoming's Devils Tower during Indian religious ceremonies crosses the constitutional line separating church and state, a climbing group argued Wednesday. The National Park Service policy also intimidates climbers, who fear if they climb the monument during the rites, they could trigger a clause that would establish a mandatory ban, attorney William Perry Pendley told the 10th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals. "The ultimate goal is ... nobody climbs," said Pendley, representing the Bear Lodge Multiple Use Association of Hulett, Wyo. Justice Department attorney Jared A. Goldstein countered that the policy accommodates the interests of both Indian tribes and climbers within the Constitution's boundaries. He noted the government regulates uses at other religious sites on federal land, such as chapels at military installations and national cemeteries. "No one is being asked, let alone being required, to participate in a religious exercise," he said. "This plan does not coerce anyone, it just educates people," he added. The three-judge panel took the appeal under advisement, and a decision is not expected for several months. Rising 1,267 feet above the prairie of northeastern Wyoming, the craggy peaks of Devils Tower are considered sacred ground by the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe of South Dakota, among other American Indians, who hold spiritual ceremonies there every June, which is considered a holy month. In 1906, President Theodore Roosevelt established the site as a national monument, noting its historic significance and natural beauty. Climbers are drawn to the peaks for the challenge of vertical crack climbing. About 6,000 climbers visit the monument every year and it is widely known for its part in "Close Encounters of the Third Kind." Last summer, a federal judge upheld the park service's policy, ruling that it would be unconstitutional to ban climbing, but rangers could ask recreational climbers to stay away during the June rites. During the appeal arguments, the three judges seemed skeptical that the voluntary ban could cause a chilling effect, where climbers afraid of stiffer sanctions limited their First Amendment right to visit the monument. Pendley likened the park policy to paying income tax, saying both were voluntary but carried penalties if ignored. Climbers, he said, are told if they climb the monument during June, "you'll mess it up for everybody else." He also said climbing guide Andy Petefish has seen a loss of business since the voluntary ban went into effect. "We have social pressure, political correctness (in play)," said Pendley, president of the Denver-based Mountain States Legal Foundation. Attorney Steve Gunn, representing the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe, said the case goes "to the very heart of their (the tribe's) ability to preserve their religious rights." "This is not a case in which the government is financing or sponsoring religious ceremonies," he said. Outside the courtroom, Steven C. Emery, the tribe's attorney general, was optimistic the policy would be upheld. "The tenor of the arguments seemed hopeful," he said. Botanist Gary Nabhan set out more than 20 years ago to help Southwest Indian farmers find the fast-vanishing heirloom vegetables their ancestors had grown. His quest took him to remote farms of the Hopi, Apache, Pima and Tohono O'odham of Arizona; the Zuni, Acoma, Cochiti, Isleta and other New Mexico Pueblo peoples; and the Navajos. A series of five weekend field courses for teachers, nature interpreters, park visitors and others interested in the desert will meet in Joshua Tree National Park beginning in early April. Vivid nuggets of the past are now stored on metal shelves in the basement of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. The Seaver Center for Western History Research, a collection of more than 1 million documents, books, photographs, posters and maps--even cattle brands on leather and Mexican-era court records--is the key to studying 19th and early 20th century Southern California.,fyi/30dad05b.310,.html At a Fort Laramie peace conference in 1854, a prominent Northern Cheyenne chief tried to strike a deal with U.S. Army officials. He would give 1,000 horses in exchange for 1,000 white women. He proposed that the women would become brides for his young warriors. His idea was not well-received. Gotham A History of New York City to 1898. NPR/TOTN Real Audio HOUR TWO: PAVING THE PAST GUESTS: FRANK SCHNIDMAN *Director of the Graduate Program in Real Property Development, University of Miami - School of Law, (Coral Gables, FL) *Author, _Handling The Land Use Case_ (September 1996, West Publishing, NY) PETER BRINK *Vice President of Programs at the National Trust for Historic Preservation Former Executive Director of Galveston Historical Foundation (Galveston, TX) In Miami, an ancient stone circle found on a site proposed for an apartment building is causing a public stir. Miami stands to gain from the completion of the luxury hi-rise, but archaeologists and Native American groups say the site is far too important to be developed. Join Ray Suarez and guests for a discussion of the delicate balance cities face when the goals of historical preservation collide with economic needs.