The March 1999 edition of The Petroglyph, the newsletter of the Arizona Archaeological Society, is on line. Point at SWA's Arizona page or

ARCHEOLOGICAL DIG AT THE TRIBAL CEMETERY YIELDS MASS GRAVE 03/01/99 An archeological dig at a tribal cemetery in Flandreau has yielded a newly discovered mass grave. Last July, archeologists located unmarked graves in the cemetery, where tribal members have been burying relatives since 1869. They did not know how many there were, so archeologist Adrien Hannus, of Sioux Falls, was called in to help. Hannus said when new graves were being dug they were actually finding an unknown grave below. The mass grave is the result of an influenza outbreak in the early 1900s. "There were too many deaths to have formally individualized burials," Hannus said. The tribe is trying to figure out what to do because space at the cemetery is dwindling. Tribal Council member Darlene Bernard said the solution is to use an empty field south of the cemetery. She said she hopes the tribal council will agree.

THE SUN HAS ALWAYS RISEN' TO COLORADO'S TRUE NATIVES 02/25/99 The millennium has a hollow ring for Everett Burch, cultural director for the Southern Ute Indian tribe. "Millennium? What millennium?" he asked. "The sun has always risen. The sun has always set. And there weren't any numbers on it." The Utes are the oldest continuous residents of Colorado, according to the Denver Museum of Natural History. Arrow points found with an extinct Pleistocene-era mammal, the mammoth, prove their ancestors are beginning their 13th millennium in this region. "The Utes claim they have always been here, and I'm beginning to believe them," said Helen Hoskins, an anthropologist and director of the Ute museum in Ignacio. The millennium also has little significance to Richard Stucky, chief curator of the Denver museum. Stucky keeps tabs on Colorado's previous residents, including the Tyrannosaurus rex, diplodocus, and stegosaurus, the state fossil. The presence of dinosaurs dates back more than 225 million years, and their 160-million-year domination of this region makes 2000 almost insignificant. "It's a little dot on the timeline," Stucky said. "It's a moment in the flow of history." Colorado's rich, compressed history helped late author James Michener choose the state for his epic history "Centennial." Jack Murphy, curator of geology for the museum, spent weeks with Michener, "a quiet, unassuming man," digging through the state's geological records, including a trip to Dinosaur National Monument on the Western Slope. "So much has happened in this state, it's unbelievable," Murphy said. "The fossil record is very complete. It's phenomenal." But Michener's view of the Colorado, inhabited by Indians and found by the first gold miners, was harsh. He called it "mean and gravelly and hard to work," a region that got only 13 inches of rain a year when even corn requires at least 33 inches. "It lacks water. My God, how it lacks water," he noted. Before 1926, when Denver museum director Jesse Figgins found an ancient dart point in Folsom, N.M., many anthropologists thought Native American history only went back about 4,000 years. The find pushed back man's history another 6,500 years. The finding of an even older arrowhead in Clovis, N.M., added another 1,000 years. Several years later, researchers found the same types of stone tools near Greeley. A Clovis toolkit in the museum tells the tale of early Colorado man: stone knives, scrapers and a mammoth ivory hammer for working stone. At Frazier, evidence was found that Paleo Indians butchered 43 bison from a hunt about 9,500 years ago. A Folsom Age camp also was found near Fort Collins, yielding a drilled pendant and fluted stone points, evidence of some technical skill in stonework. "We have a reasonably good record of what happened here," Stucky said. But the written record is missing, except for the past 150 years when white explorers made their way into the state and recorded what they found. W.C. Chamberlain shot pictures of Chief Ouray, leader of the Utes from 1868 to 1880, sitting in a chair with his long leather pants and beaded jacket. There is also a photo of Ute Chief Buckskin Charlie, wearing his standup feather bonnet and a Peace medal from President Benjamin Harrison in 1889, some of the earliest clues as to how the Indians lived. Burch said his forefathers found no need for a written history. According to legend, the Utes have been in the region later since the creation. "The record we have is oral, passed down from generation to generation. God never told us to write it down," said Burch. "Years and dates never mattered as much as the four seasons to the Utes." The Anasazi, who built their homes in the cliffs of Mesa Verde near Cortez about 1,650 years ago, also left no written records, except for the drawings on rocks scattered throughout western Colorado. They mysteriously disappeared about 1250 A.D. Ms. Hoskins said the Utes have a legend about the Anasazi, telling the Utes to "stay away from those mean people living in the hills to the west." The Southern Utes and Ute Mountain Utes are the only remnants of their tribes still living on reservations in Colorado. They now number about 3,300. Clement Frost, chairman of the Southern Ute tribe, said the new millennium means a transition to the technological world for the tribe, one fraught with danger to his lifestyle and culture. "I see 30 years from now that we may no longer have our culture if we don't find ways to preserve our culture and our language," he said. Ms. Hoskins said she turned down a federal grant for a millennium display at the museum, because the event has no significance to Colorado's Indians. But she said there are some things even the Utes cannot escape when the clock strikes midnight on Dec. 31. "They do have one thing in common with this date," she said. "Their computers will stop working like everyone else's, if they're not fixed. That's the only thing they have in common with the millennium." Preliminary work uncovered a Paleoindian site in one of the sand channels along the Old River. The underlying purpose of the work is to define the settings in which critically important early archaeological sites may be found. The road's names included Territorial Trail and Chicago Road. It largely followed ancient Indian trails and attracted an unbroken stream of homesteaders appropriating Indian lands. In 1924, it became the world's longest paved street at 292 miles. The bison are considered a vital link to Indians' existence. Before the arrival of Europeans on the Northern Plains, the bison provided Indians with food and shelter. The Northern Plains Bison Education Network, a group of tribal colleges, is developing courses in managing the animals. The network director, Louis LaRose, said most tribal colleges are offering courses. "Hidden in Plain View" advances the theory that encoded quilts were used by slaves and white abolitionists to communicate in code. With a degree in classics, a fascination with ancient science and technology, and an interest in technology and the body, Maines continued adding to her file on vibrators, establishing herself as an historical researcher. She found them advertised in Woman's Home Companion and other such respectable Victorian periodicals.