MEXICO More than 10,000 artifacts looted from archaeological sites around Mexico have been recovered by the federal attorney general's office or turned over abroad to Mexican consulates and embassies, said Teresa Franco y Gonzalez, director of the National Institute of Anthropology and History.


FLAGS FROM ALAMO, CIVIL WAR ARE RESTORED 06/29/99 AUSTIN, Texas (AP) Nine historic flags _ from the Texas Revolution and Civil War _ were unveiled Tuesday by the Texas Historical Commission. The flags, which took hundreds of hours to restore, eventually will go on public display along with other historic banners in the state archives, officials said. "What would you pay for the Star-Spangled Banner? They're priceless," said Bob Maberry, a historian working on the flag preservation project. One flag was carried by Mexican soldiers of the Matamoros Battalion, who were part of the force that stormed the Alamo on March 6, 1836, Maberry said. A second was for the Guerrero Battalion, which arrived at the Alamo a day later, Maberry said. Both the Mexican tricolors were captured when Texans defeated Santa Anna's army at the Battle of San Jacinto. The seven Civil War flags were carried by soldiers of several Texas regiments. Two are from the First Texas Infantry, Hood's Texas Brigade, which served throughout the war in Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia and took part in numerous battles. One of those, the Lone Star banner, was a Texas flag made by Lula Wigfall, daughter of the regiment's first colonel, Louis T. Wigfall, and presented to the regiment in the summer of 1861. During the Sept. 17, 1862 Battle of Antietam _ called the bloodiest day in American history for the 23,000 solders killed, wounded and missing _ the First Texas suffered 82.3 percent casualties. During the battle, nine Texas standard bearers fell carrying the flag. When the final Texan fell, the flag was lost, picked up from among the bodies by a Pennsylvania private. "This is probably the jewel of the collection," Maberry said. The second of the First Texas flags, with the Confederate stars and bars, was the companion to the Lone Star flag. Beginning in the summer of 1862, the Army of Northern Virginia began issuing manufactured battle flags to regiments. The Texans, however, favored their state flag and carried both into battle, Maberry said. Both of the Hood flags went to the U.S. War Department after the Civil War, remaining there until 1905, when President Theodore Roosevelt returned them to Texas as part of a gesture of national reconciliation. "The ironic thing is that all these trophies men fought and died for got stuck in the War Department and forgotten," Maberry said. About $250,000 was raised from private donors to pay for restoration of the nine flags, said Linda Lee, executive director of the Friends of the Texas Historical Commission. That nonprofit organization is spearheading the restoration project. She said plans call for restoration of about a dozen more flags in the state's collection, with a public display planned for Houston in 2001. "That will be the first time all the flags will be together," she said. Don Carleton, director of the Center for American History at the University of Texas _ where the flags were shown to restoration project donors Tuesday _ said the banners are highly significant. "There's nothing like a flag to convey the color and symbolism and reality," Carleton said. "We could have a diary written by a solider and it's extremely valuable and probably has a whole lot more information ... but for the public this is a really vivid demonstration. It's about as close as you can get to being there," he said.

NEW MEXICO FARMINGTON -- The annual Fourth of July fireworks display at the B-Square Ranch will have added meaning this year. Ranch owner Tommy Bolack said his father's ashes will be in the fireworks powder.

HIGHER HANTAVIRUS RATE LEADS TO SOME RETHINKING 06/29/99 SANTA FE, N.M. (AP) The rising rate of hantavirus infection among deer mice in New Mexico and Colorado is leading scientists to rethink key factors in the spread of the disease among humans. Hantavirus infection rates in New Mexico deer mice were as high as 45 percent in some areas tested this spring. Some scientists had suggested deer mice population was the key factor, but the number of cases among humans has increased this year even though deer mouse populations dropped. "There are two factors we have to look at: the number of mice and the degree to which they are sero-positive" for antibodies to hantavirus, said Dr. David Keller, director of infectious disease epidemiology with the Department of Health. Last year, the state Department of Health issued warnings about a potentially bad year for hantavirus as mouse populations skyrocketed. For all of 1998, only six New Mexicans developed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, according to the department. But already this year, seven cases have been reported even though deer mouse populations are lower. "People need to be very cautious," said Terry Yates, chairman of the University of New Mexico's biology department. The deadly respiratory illness can be contracted by humans who inhale dust containing particles of rodent wastes _ feces, urine or saliva. Many cases have occurred as people clean up areas infested by mice. Last year, New Mexico mouse populations were particularly high after El Nino rains. But at that point, the antibodies to hantavirus were detected in fewer than 10 percent of New Mexico's mice and 20 percent of Colorado's mice, according to a recent report from the National Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta. This year, infection rates in Colorado are as high as 40 percent and up to 45 percent in some areas of New Mexico. Most human cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome this year have come from northwestern New Mexico. The higher mouse infection rates appear to be linked to greater numbers of older mice, scientists say. A relatively mild winter may have helped more adult mice survive longer. The longer a mouse lives, the more chances it has of contracting hantavirus, said Yates. The virus doesn't appear to be passed during gestation from a mother to her babies, said Bob Parmenter, UNM research associate professor. It's not known if the virus is passed during mating. Mice likely catch it from contact with feces and urine of other mice, sharing nests or fighting. Parmenter described one scenario biologists are considering: Older rodents, infected with hantavirus, may be infecting younger mice during battles over territory. Optimum deer mice habitats are sagebrush, juniper and pinon. Since the beginning of 1998, there have been more than two dozen cases in the Four Corners states of New Mexico, Arizona, Utah and Colorado _ more than twice as many as in the previous three years combined, said Dr. Brian Hjelle, associate professor at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine. This strain of hantavirus was first recognized in 1993 after a flurry of cases _ 18 in New Mexico, 10 in Arizona and five in Colorado. In all, more than 200 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome have been confirmed in 30 states. Nearly 45 percent have been fatal.

ARIZONA Mention the sign to anyone else who grew up in Lehi, a farm community founded by Mesa's Mormon pioneers in 1877, and the memories come flooding back for them as well. The station and market were rare signs of modernity. Historian Charles Crismon, a Lehi native who runs the Mesa Historical Museum across the street from the closed service station, will miss the old sign. "The whole store is in disrepair, but the sign was just something from Americana," Crismon said. On the Trail of Coronado is focused on discovering segments of the trail used by the expeditionary force of Francisco Vasquez de Coronado. The search for Coronado's trail is based on the premise that portions of the trail were used by Indians hundreds of years before and probably for decades after Coronado's return trip to Mexico in 1542. Besides being a well used Indian road we might expect that the expeditionary force left behind inscriptions, shrines and temporary camps with associated features and that members of the expeditions lost or discarded along the trail a variety of identifiable Spanish-Colonial period artifacts. Current research has focused on documenting 16th, 17th and 18th century Spanish-Colonial artifacts in private and public collections. The distribution of Spanish artifacts found in isolated context over the landscape of southeastern Arizona, southwestern New Mexico and portions of northern Sonora will be plotted. The distribution of Spanish-Colonial artifacts will determine the locations for remote sensing studies and ground surveys in an attempt to find trail segments. If you have information or would like more information pertinent to this study please contact: John Madsen, Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721

CALIFORNIA Archaeologists with the Modoc National Forest are conducting a weeklong expedition this summer. The Modoc research project is part of a federal effort to get the public involved in the archaeological history of national forests. For more information about the Modoc National Forest expeditions, contact Modoc National Forest archaeologist Gerry Gates at (530) 233-5811. To volunteer for the Plumas Forest-Elizabethtown dig, contact Plumas National Forest archaeologist Dan Elliot at (530) 283-0555.

Another national program, Passports in Time, brings volunteers to archaeological excavations where they work under supervision conducting site surveys, lab work and restoration. See

SOUTH DAKOTA NPS Morning Report - Wednesday, June 30, 1999 99-318 - Badlands NP (SD) - Theft of Fossils On June 23rd, rangers investigated a report of people collecting fossils along Old Northeast Road. Several fossils were seen in plain view on the floorboard inside the suspect vehicle; a search of the area led to contact with a father and son, both from Crockett, Texas. Rangers found more than 40 fossil pieces, including limb, jaw and tooth fragments, in the vehicle and the father's day pack. Two fossil rhinoceros skulls and an oreodont skull were also confiscated. The rhino skulls had been removed from the ground with a pocket knife. Both father and son appeared to be avid amateurs with more experience than the average tourist. The rangers obtained their consent to search their campsite in a private campground outside the park, which led to the discovery and seizure of additional fossils. The park's paleontologist was consulted to identify the fossils and determine their value. The father was cited for violating 36 CFR 2.1, possession of fossilized paleontological specimens. [Scott Lopez, BADL, 6/29]

CYBERIA,1249,100007977,00.html? western regional calendar (summertime historical events) Five years after the enactment of a federal law permitting Native Americans to use the hallucinogenic plant peyote in religious services, Pentagon officials and leaders of the largest Indian church have finally reached agreement on implementing the law for members of the military--except those who handle nuclear weapons. Leaders of the Native American Church of North America said the agreement was made with Defense Department officials at the church's 50th annual convention on June 18 in Farmington, N.M., ending years of bitterness among many Indians over restrictions on the use of peyote, which contains the psychedelic drug mescaline, by members of the armed forces. Rivals In the Hunt For History: Two Archaeologists Vie to Recover Wonders of Ancient Egypt. It is a classic rivalry. The bookworm vs. the entrepreneur. The scholar who reads Latin and used a centuries-old travel chronicle to help identify -- or maybe not -- the remains of Alexandria's fabled lighthouse vs. the corporate-backed, media-wise adventurer who used a nuclear resonance magnetometer to find -- or maybe not -- the site of Cleopatra's palace. The competition has sparked a debate over first principles in archaeological circles -- what role the study of the deep past has in an increasingly technology-driven world and what role money and the media have in that sometimes arcane science. Dell Computer is on the lookout for the oldest PC currently in use at a small business to celebrate its 25th anniversary. The oldest PC will become part of the collection at the Computer Museum of America Southwest Traditional Stories A Critical Bibliography On North American Indians, For K-12 Provided by the Smithsonian Institution Department of Anthropology, this comprehensive annotated bibliography of over 800 books is an excellent resource for teachers, librarians, and curriculum designers who want to introduce multiple cultural perspectives and begin to correct longstanding misunderstandings in American history. Compiled by experts in the field, the bibliography includes reviews of both highly recommended (indicated with a star) and non-recommended books (indicated with a question mark), based on the criteria listed in the helpful Introduction. The bibliography itself is divided by geographic area (Arctic, Plains, Great Basin, Southeast, etc.), with one section containing general works. Bibliographic entries typically contain a several-sentence review, bibliographic details, and a grade level recommendation.