PRESERVATION IS PRETTY GNARLY Tax collectors were hanged in effigy there, and disgruntled citizens in other colonial cities adopted their own large trees as meeting places. The British chopped down many of the landmarks, and others succumbed to age or weather. Now, only one is left, in Annapolis. In an effort to raise recognition of Maryland's historical treasures, technicians will extract genetic material from the gnarly 96-foot-tall tree. The material will be used to clone new Liberty Trees in time for the new millennium.

COMO ALCOHOLISMO, EL VANDALISMO ES TRATABLE The Price of Age. A British 'dissertation' on the antiquities market. New Initiatives in the Bilateral Protection of Cultural Heritage along the Borderlands: Mexico and the United States

MEXICO The practice of baking agave hearts is ancient in Mexico. Originally they were baked in stone-lined underground pits heated by keeping a fire going in them for couple of hours. But in pre-Columbian times, agave was mostly baked for food. Nobody was making tequila from the aguamiel because the Aztecs were ignorant of distillation, though they did know about fermentation and sometimes fermented aguamiel. So did some Spanish colonist just take a look at aguamiel wine one day and say, "Aha--let's distill it"? Apparently not. Village people in the tequila country use peculiar stills, quite unlike the European type in which the alcohol vapor condenses in a water-cooled copper tube. In these village stills, it condenses on the underside of the lid of the vaporization chamber itself. The lid is concave; the vapor condenses on it because the top of the lid holds some cold water. The alcohol drips from the lid into a little cup hanging inside the chamber, and from time to time you remove the lid and harvest your mezcal. Sure, it's nowhere near as efficient as a European copper still, but you don't need any metal to make one; you can use pottery. This is a Southeast Asian design that seems to have come from the Philippines as an unplanned consequence of Spain's 17th and 18th century trade with its Philippine and American colonies. An unknown Filipino immigrant evidently tasted aguamiel, thought of sugar cane juice and the native rums of his homeland, and bingo: Tequila, or at least its remote ancestor, was born.

HISTORIC MATAMOROS BUILDINGS SET FOR RENOVATION 06/02/99 BROWNSVILLE, Texas (AP) Matamoros authorities have created a $3 million fund to restore a cluster of historic buildings in the Mexican city's downtown. "We think this is a project which is 100 percent economically feasible," said the city's planning director. "By rescuing our historical landmarks and buildings, we think we can attract more tourism and more economic development." With the exception of a few historic buildings restored in recent years, many of Matamoros' old structures are either crumbling or being taken over by new construction. The latest project calls for the Tamaulipas state government to allocate about $1 million and for Matamoros city officials to contribute $500,000. The remaining $1.5 million would come from property owners. As many as 165 buildings could be eligible for the state and municipal funds for the restoration project. An advisory board will determine which buildings will be renovated.

CALIFORNIA Discover the rich history of California's Gold Rush through the direct links on The Times' Launch Point Web site: In Joshua Tree National Park, a team of experts will spend the next week surveying vegetation wildlife and archaeological resources within the 14,000 acres of scorched land - and will come up with a plan to help in the restoration of the burned wilderness.

SESQUICENTENNIAL COMMISSION'S LOSS WOULD BE COMMUNITIES' GAIN 06/02/99 SACRAMENTO (AP) The California Sesquicentennial Commission would be shut down and its funds earmarked for local celebrations of the state's 150th birthday under a plan approved by the Legislature's budget committee. The six-member panel voted unanimously Tuesday to eliminate the jobs of the commission's nine employees on July 1 and give the commission's $963,000 budget to a yet-to-be-named state agency to distribute in grants for local celebrations. The sesquicentennial has been troubled since the creation in 1994 of a foundation to coordinate 2 1/2 years of events. The festivities were supposed to start in January 1998 with the anniversary of the 1848 discovery of gold, continue this year with commemoration of the 49ers gold rush and culminate in September 2000 with the 150th anniversary of statehood. The foundation originally drew only a small administrative budget from the state, with a goal of raising $10 million from private sources. Fund-raising languished and the foundation was accused of wasting state funds.

NEVADA Governor Measure vetoed HISTORICAL SITES: SB397. Establishes programs for preserving archaeological or historical sites. Legislation passed to allow the printing of special license plates to help pay for the preservation of the Big Spring Archeological district near downtown Las Vegas.


From: - Archaeology Field Schools - There are some openings for students at SUU's summer field archaeology school at Colorado City, AZ. Contact Georgia Thompson at for cost and details. The school is from July 7th to Aug. 1st. It is a Virgin Anasazi site and includes a Pueblo II site just outside of Colorado City. It is a great opportunity and a lot of fun - it includes living in a tent city and meals. - J.S. (Steve) Stacey (520) 799-4044

NEW MEXICO One-stop shopping to public lands in the West is available now through a Web site co-sponsored by the Public Lands Interpretive Association, the Bureau of Land Management, and the U.S. Forest Service Intermountain Region. The Web site is found at At present the site has pages for New Mexico and Nevada, but by the year 2000 it will include all 12 Western states. Users can search the Web site by activity (hiking, rafting, mountain biking, and many more), as well as by region (within the state and by the type of public land, such as game refuge, wilderness area, wild and scenic river, state parks and monuments, and others). People can use the Web site to buy books and maps, obtain licenses and permits, scan a calendar of events, get weather reports, find lodging, and, through the New Mexico Department of Tourism, even get a recipe for biscochitos. The site complements the three Public Lands Information Centers, located on Rodeo Road off St. Francis Drive in Santa Fe, 2909 W. Second St. in Roswell, and in downtown Phoenix. Now the challenge will be to stop surfing and start exploring the lands themselves.

ACTIVITIES TO CELEBRATE GILA'S 75TH ANNIVERSARY 06/02/99 SILVER CITY, N.M. (AP) Southwestern New Mexico's Gila Wilderness _ the nation's first designated wilderness _ is turning 75, and the U.S. Forest Service is throwing a party. The wilderness was formed after Aldo Leopold, a Forest Service employee working in New Mexico, argued against the proposed expansion of roads in the back country of the Gila National Forest. He proposed that a large area be left roadless and preserved for wilderness recreation. On June 3, 1924, 755,000 acres were set aside as the Gila Wilderness. The designation marked the beginning of a national system of wilderness, culminating with the National Wilderness Act of 1964. Lake Roberts will conduct interpretive programs at archaeological sites and presentations on the history of the area. Fort Bayard will put on a 1860s baseball game using rules, equipment and uniforms fashioned after teams of the day. Exhibits will be set up at WNMU from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. The celebration wraps up Sunday, designated as Honor Wilderness Day. An Apache elder will reflect on the significance of the wilderness during an American Indian program at 9 a.m. at Little Walnut Picnic Ground near Silver City. For more information, contact the Chamber Anniversary Committee at 538-3785 or 1-800-548-9378 or the Gila National Forest at 388-8272.

MESCALERO PARISH WORKS TO REPAIR HISTORIC CHURCH 06/02/99 MESCALERO, N.M. (AP) "YAT'A AGULDA." This Apache phrase, which means "Heaven is made here," is draped over the stone altar in St. Joseph Apache Mission Church in Mescalero. As the Roman Catholic congregation of the church works to build its spiritual heaven, it is also struggling to restore its little piece of heaven on Earth. The Romanesque church, characterized by high ceilings and immense proportions, was dedicated in 1939. It was constructed under the direction of the Rev. Albert Braun. According to brother Peter Boegel, a Franciscan who is heading up the restoration efforts of the church, the idea behind Romanesque architecture was to convey God's power and majesty. "When you walk in the doors it's supposed to lift up your spirit," he said. Almost 60 years later, the towering structure is literally crumbling apart as bats infest its walls and the weather tears away at the structure. Five years ago, a restoration committee was formed to look at repairing the church and preserving it for the future. Through a grant, a concert fund-raiser and other donations, the church has managed to raise $63,000 toward the project. Primary benefactors include the Cornerstones Foundation, Frank J. Lewis Foundation, Stockman Family Foundation and the William and Virginia Hayden Foundation. While it is only a fraction of the amount needed to replace the lime mortar, fix the heating and make other repairs, the committee has already begun to put the money to work. Bar-M Construction is experimenting with replacing the church's mortar. Pete Mold of England, an expert on lime mortar, has been working with Bar-M Construction to replace the mortar in the stone church. Over the years, the application of lime mortar has become a lost art. According to Mold, the use of cement became more and more common after it was invented during World War II. However, Mold said lime mortar is ideal to use on the old church. Unlike cement, lime mortar would not trap moisture inside the church. It is also less rigid and would be less likely to crack. The Melendez family of Bar-M Construction has been working with Mold to find the ideal lime mortar recipe and application technique. Through experimentation they found the perfect sand to serve as the aggregate, or skeleton, of the mortar. They then mixed it with limestone and water and allowed it to mature. "We are being very cautious," Mold said. "Cautious and thorough in our materials, our design, our application and our after care." If the two-week project is successful, the restoration committee intends to keep going until it runs out of money. Boegel predicts the entire restoration project will cost $1.2 million. The congregation of St. Joseph's is used to such struggles to raise money for the church. When Braun first arrived at the parish, he was disappointed in the original church, which was dilapidated and inadequate for his congregation's needs. Through scrimping and saving, much like the present parish is scrimping and saving today, Braun constructed the church that now towers over U.S. 70 between Tularosa and Ruidoso. Inside, the church is a harmonious blend between Roman Catholic and Apache traditions. Boegel said Braun was a pioneer in recognizing how Apache lore compliments rather than contradicts Catholicism. A mural in the back of the church depicts a puberty ceremony, with two girls looking on as two crown dancers attempt to drive away the evil spirits and an Apache clown brings on the positive ones. Wall hangings, representing the crowns worn by the crown dancers, are strung on the walls along the church.Braun's grave, located to the right of the altar, is covered by tiles with the epitaph, "Apostle to the Mescalero Apaches." Visitors to the church are inspired by the beauty of both the architecture and artwork inside it. Boegel said 2,000 entries are logged in the church's guest book each year. Jaccasd A. of Geneva, Switzerland, wrote, "Absolutely beautiful." Alex Parrish of Fruitland wrote, "A vision of divine beauty." Such comments and visitors have made the church a tourist stop as well as a spiritual one.

TEXAS Four segments of Los Caminos Reales - the royal roads of the Spanish colonial era - cross the property, and there are more than 100 archaeological and historical sites with 16 of the sites listed as state archaeological landmarks said.


MAN'S ROOTS GAVE HIM EXPERIENCE FOR HISTORIAN JOB 06/02/99 ROOSEVELT, Okla. (AP) Braced by a long, dulled cedar cane, Jack Haley gingerly moved about a ridge dotted with granite rocks and wildflowers. He stood on the land of his birthright. The majestic, western range of the Wichita Mountains towered behind him with the vast plains laid at his feet to the west. From his roost, the 69-year-old rancher scanned a seemingly endless frontier. Haley knows the feeling. In April, Haley _ a man of reputed vision and experience _ was elected to lead the Oklahoma Historical Society into the 21st century as its president. He was elected to a three-year term. Towering behind him will soon be the society's $46 million history center in Oklahoma City with legions of potential members statewide at his fingertips. From his roost, the venerable Oklahoman scans a seemingly endless historical frontier. By all accounts, Haley was bred for this moment. "When I was younger we used to run all over these mountains like a bunch of mountain goats," recalled Haley, lifting his straw hat to wipe the sweat from his forehead. "You get that granite in your blood." As well as the history. Haley grew up in the shadow of the Wichita Mountains, raised by the children of early-day settlers in western Oklahoma. As a child he often tagged along with his father, Dan, and listened to the stories of the region's Indian elders and former trail drivers. "Growing up, my dad was a cow-puncher and trader," Haley said. "He loved to visit, too. And I had the opportunity to hear some of the older ones tell stories. They grew up on the trails. Unfortunately, I didn't have a recorder at the time." Once, in the shade of a giant tree, Haley shared an afternoon with one of his father's friends, Charlie McKenzie from New Mexico. McKenzie knew William H. Bonney, alias Billy the Kid. Hair-raising sagas of the frontier often hit home. Part of Haley's ranch covers the site where a Kiowa village was attacked in 1833 by a war party of Osage. Most of the Kiowa warriors were absent at the time because they were in the north on a raiding party against the Utes. When the Kiowa warriors returned, they found the remains of a torched camp and the severed heads of their friends and relatives in brass buckets. The attack became known as the Cutthroat Gap Massacre, and through the years the Haley family has hosted many Kiowa people who desired to visit the sacred site. They came to pay respects to those ancestors who were buried in a mass grave. As a teen-ager, Haley remembers hearing the massacre story from a 100-year-old Kiowa named Hunting Horse whose mother survived the attack. Hunting Horse once scouted for Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer. "Jack Haley is Oklahoma," said Blake Wade, the Oklahoma Historical Society's executive director. "From his roots to now as president of the Oklahoma Historical Society ... it's appropriate that Jack Haley is the man leading us into the next century." Haley was born July 4, 1931, on the ranch where he now resides. In 1957, after a hitch in the U.S. Army, Haley began working at the University of Oklahoma as an assistant archivist. By the time he retired in 1986 he held the prestigious position of associate curator of OU's Western History Collection _ an internationally renowned research facility for Western Americana. Over the years, Haley assisted authors, scholars and television documentary crews from around the world, as well as resident students. They all came to mine the collection's extensive holdings. In the late 1960s he remembered his first visit with a Russian professor from the University of Moscow. "There were a lot of subjects I was able to help with because of where I grew up,' Haley said. "And there were a lot of things I learned. You never knew what subject was going to come up when someone came in to do research. That was always interesting. "In my later years, I think some of the students looked at me as an old fossil. I guess I grew up in a time warp." The former curator also became familiar with noted western authors like Wilbur S. Nye, who have since become as historical as the legendary figures they wrote about. Haley has also become an institution. "Jack was the one who interviewed and hired me when I first came here," Wade said. "Jack has been the one leading the charge to get a new history center since 1986. Not everyone is elected by the board of directors with a unanimous vote. That said a lot when 24 other board members from around the state accepted him." Haley now serves as professor emeritus of bibliography at OU. In November 1994, Haley lost his lifelong collection of history books and interviews in a fire at his ranch. Consumed by the flames were more than 4,000 books, most of which were first editions signed by the authors. "Not all the books burned all the way through," Haley recalled. "So for the next couple months I had to go out there and rip them apart so I could burn them. It was gut-wrenching." Through it all, Haley has always found comfort in his roots. Even while working at the OU campus, he routinely drove to his family's ranch on the weekends to help his father tend cattle. At home he has never been far from his two greatest passions: the land and its history. "A lot of times I'll come out here right before sunset and sit down on a log or a rock," Haley said. "I'll just watch the wildlife come out. When it's real still, you can see quite a bit." Especially from Haley's vantage point.

TOOLS A dedicated E-mail appliance you can take with you.


Dear Sir or Madam: I am currently doing an English paper in which I am trying to find out whether archeology is a worthwhile career for me to pursue. This is not only an academic interests, but also a personally important one; so I hope you will consider responding. If any archeologists or students of archeology (or similar subject) are reading this, I hope you will be so kind as to answer a few questions. (please pass this on to any associates that can answer these questions as well). Your firsthand view of the topic will give me a better view of what archeology is all about. Please respond by e-mail to It would be greatly appreciated if you would take the time to seriously read the questions and answer them thoroughly. Please respond as soon as possible (my project is due 6/7/99) to give me adequate time to do my project and so I can ask you more questions if needed. If you cannot respond by then feel free to write to me because this is question I will be dealing with even after my English project is over. I do not want to waste your time, because I am sure you are busy, but by responding you will greatly aid me in answering this important question. I hope that at least a few people will respond. Please write back to Thank you for at least reading this letter and hopefully considering writing back.

Please answer these questions thoroughly and truthfully, because I want to know what it takes to become and what it is like being an archeologist. A greatly appreciate that you are taking time out of your schedule to answer these questions. If there is anything you like to add that will help me in deciding if archeology is the right field for me, please feel free to do so. I am genuinely interested in the subject, and I hope you will help me by responding.

Note: archeology students may not be able to answer some of these questions, but feel free to answer with your opinion.

1. As an archeologist, what impact do you think your research has on society? Do you think it is beneficial?
2. Describe the best and worst aspects of your job.
3. How often do you get to do what you like? Example?
4. Are you satisfied with your job? Do you feel that your work is appreciated? How so?
5. What makes archeology a worthwhile occupation for you?
6. What drew you towards this field? Occurrences in your childhood?
7. What does your job demand physically?
8. What did you do academically to become an archeologist?
9. What have you accomplished as an archeologist?
10. From your experience, what characteristics make a good archeologists?
11. What did you do as a young adult to work towards being an archeologist? What can I do now to prepare myself for the field of archeology?
12. What other interests do you have besides archeology? Does your job allow you enough time to do activities relating to you interests?

Thank you so much for responding. You have helped me greatly not only on my English project, but also in choosing an occupation. I am genuinely intrusted in your point-of-view and I would love to hear personal experiences. Please send your responses to If you have associates or peers that are archeologists, are studying archeology, or that have some insight on the topic, please pass this e-mail on to them. I would greatly appreciate it. Thank you again. Sincerely, Emily Liu.