TEXAS Dee Brown credits Charles Goodnight - or more accurately, his wife Mollie - for popularizing the word "cowboy." The childless Goodnights always referred to their riders as their "boys," which evolved into cowboys. The term cowboy was not accepted at first, despite the sponsorship of influential people like Mollie and Charles Goodnight. The first trail drives from central and south Texas were conducted by "drovers," and the first hostelry for trail drivers in Kansas was called the "Drovers Cottage." But by the late 1870s, the term "cowboy" had come into general use. When the railroads had expanded and cattle drives became things of the past, the names cowpuncher and cowpoke came into use for the practice of sending cowboys along with the trains. The cowboys were equipped with long poles to "poke" or "punch" cattle that had fallen in the stock cars back to their feet before they were trampled.


NMSU LISTS OLD SILVER CITY WATERWORKS AS ENDANGERED BUILDING 07/26/99 SILVER CITY, N.M. (AP) _ The old Silver City waterworks has been listed as an endangered building. New Mexico State University's public history program wants to preserve "one of the oldest municipal waterworks buildings in the state." About 100 Silver City volunteers are helping put the plan into effect, program officials said. Also on the endangered list are Manhattan Project buildings in Los Alamos, where the first atomic bomb was designed; the Mesilla historic district south of Las Cruces; the San Esteban del Rey Church and Convent at Acoma Pueblo _ and New Mexico's night sky. The 1887 Silver City waterworks made of local sandstone pumped water from an underground gallery and a well to a stone reservoir overlooking town. But it has been vacant for more than 30 years. The New Mexico Heritage Preservation Alliance named the waterworks this year to its list of Eleven Most Endangered Places in New Mexico. "The exterior of the building is much as it appeared in 1887," the alliance wrote. "The waterworks played an important role in the public works history of New Mexico and is significant as the only stone structure of its era in Silver City, a unique monument to the feisty frontier optimism which the community displayed in its youthful days."

ARIZONA American Indians inhabited the Barrio Anita area before the Spanish came to the Tucson area. Teodoro Ramirez bought some of what now is Barrio Anita from Apaches in 1828. It's ridiculous for the district to predict that it can build on the Oro Valley site in two years when the property contains six archaeological sites, said Doug McKee, who lives in the Catalina Shadows neighborhood near that site. This stretch of road could get downright boring. If it weren't for the dinosaurs. Three of 'em. Big green lizards with fangs that long, standing there by the road like they just came up out of the gullies looking for something - or someone - to snarf down for an afternoon meal. There are no archaeologists swarming over the hill. Casa Malpais has been, in effect, shut down for the summer. Maintenance has been hampered severely by hard rainstorms. Bob Phillips, geodecist from Phoenix, came to the site with an extensive array of Global Positioning equipment. His equipment is accurate down to two millimeters. He mapped the locations of 35 new rock art panels and other features of the site. The old site map may have been flawed due to iron and other mineral deposits in the hillside. That map is now exact. The restoration will continue throughout the summer. In 1871, General George Crook headed a column of cavalry men out of Fort Apache, his destination was Prescott, the territory’s gold boom town and capital. His route from Fort Apache was 220 miles west to Fort Verde along the Mogollon rim through an Apache stronghold, which few white men had ever dared to enter. General Crook did not know that when he left Fort Apache on that hot August day, he would, over the next twelve years, play an important role in two Apache campaigns, and the route that he took would become a famous historic trail. Today most Navajo students currently speak English as their dominant language and within 50 years, if the trend continues, the language could become extinct. Several schools are working with a three-year Rural Challenge Grant from the Annenberg Foundation to develop Native language and culture models. Each of the schools is focusing on a community-based project to improve educational opportunities for Navajo students in their communities. Results of the project will be available for dissemination and replication in other schools interested in implementing or improving Navajo history, language and culture programs.

UTAH,1249,100012147,00.html? Four volumes, filled with 8,000 entries, present the stories of typical pioneer women who came to Utah before 1869. The entries are arranged in alphabetical order, and each contains a block of vital statistics - birth, marriage, arrival in Utah, death, children - as well as a narrative account of her story. An index for all four volumes is found in the last one. The current price is $125, and books are sold only as sets. Copies of the books are available at the DUP Museum, 300 N. Main. Just two days before the Bureau of Land Management released a plan for managing Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, two Escalante environmentalists who support the plan had their home vandalized. A float in the town's parade showed a dummy environmentalist pinned to the front of it as if it had been hit.

CALIFORNIA A historic preservation ordinance has prompted a dispute in this upscale community tucked near the heart of the Silicon Valley. But some residents said the move has backfired. Now the residents are fighting back. Similar historic preservation ordinances are sweeping through the country. During the past two decades, ordinances and boards aimed at preserving historic property have tripled to 2,250, according to the National Alliance of Preservation Commissions. In California alone, more than half of the cities have now passed historic preservation restrictions.

CYBERIA U.S. Department of the Interior - Bureau of Land Management - 1998 Annual Report Museum collections under BLM's stewardship consist principally of archaeological and paleontological materials. During fiscal year 1998, approximately 8,000 additional archaeological and historical sites were recorded. The number of National Register of Historic Places listings increased by seven. Net Change in Museum Collections from 1997 to 1998: Approximately 99 percent of all museum collections originating from BLM-administered lands are housed in non-Federal facilities that the BLM has only limited control over and limited access to. The BLM provides little or no funding to these non-Federal facilities, which are usually located in the general vicinity of the area where the objects are excavated. Collections in these non-Federal repositories usually have the most meaning to local populations. Because objects are excavated from the public lands constantly, the BLM can state there has been a net increase in the number of collections. However, limited control and access make it impossible for the BLM to count all the objects added to collections. In addition, it has never been general museum practice to perform annual inventories of museum collections. With the surge in recent fossil discoveries, scientists' understanding of ancient creatures, climates and landscapes has grown. So has the space and time with which scientists need to store, study and display them. In most states, artifacts found on public land go to museums, colleges and agencies. But except for a few states, discoveries on private land are considered private property. It's up to the owners to decide whether items end up on public display or on someone's mantelpiece. As the economic boom of the '90s pushes construction beyond the edge of U.S. cities, bulldozers are uncovering, and sometimes destroying, potential treasures of America's prehistoric past. The surge of excavation is turning up fossils and archaeological sites, especially in the West, in numbers not seen since the great bone-hunting expeditions of the 19th century. For museums and scientists, the flurry of earthmoving is a double-edged shovel. The fast pace of construction means paleontologists must scramble to save what specimens they can. Petrified bones surface so regularly that one museum created a "Fossil Posse" to respond. When called, these trained volunteers go to construction sites and assess the importance of finds for curators too busy with other digs -- "battlefield triage." An adult woolly mammoth will be dug out of the permafrost and cloned using a genetically similar Asian elephant as the gestating mother, said Larry Agenbroad, a geology professor at the University of Northern Arizona, who will join the team in Russia in September. The six-week excavation project will be filmed by the Discovery Channel for broadcast in March 2000. Hoping to preserve an ancient culture and teach a few teenagers at the same time, the Kenaitze Tribe's archaeology camp begins its fourth year this week. Even at the relatively tender age of 14, Elizabeth Smith and Tim Gray already are seasoned archaeologists, able to sift through unearthed debris to find and differentiate between 5,000-year-old spear tips and stone shards or to tell 18th-century bone buttons from discarded pottery.