CYBERIA Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) uses properties listed in the National Park Service's National Register of Historic Places to enliven history, social studies, geography, civics, and other subjects. Technical procedures, specifications and resources for the maintenance, standards, and repair of historic buildings. Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) and the Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) document achievements in architecture, engineering, and design in the United States and its territories through a comprehensive range of building types and engineering technologies. A few archaeologists think some of the first Americans may have been Columbus' Ice Age ancestors. One new theory suggests Europeans with sticks-and-stones technology invaded the New World and started a Stone Age industrial revolution. The tool kit of the ancient Solutrean culture that inhabited France and the Iberian peninsula until about 18,000 years ago is strikingly similar to Clovis technology, say anthropologist Dennis Stanford from the Smithsonian Institution in Washington and stone tool expert Bruce Bradley. The two scientists say they're not sure yet whether the Clovis people came in a mass migration from Europe, or if only a few Solutreans came and gave the technology to early Americans, who adapted it. Shephard Krech III, a professor of anthropology at Brown University, says his carefully argued -- and thoroughly fascinating -- study was meant "to determine the extent to which Indians were ecologists and conservationists (as is commonly understood today)." The evidence Krech marshals suggests that -- much like present-day Americans, native or not -- they were ecologists when it suited their needs and despoilers when it did not. This summer, the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities' Jamestown Rediscovery Project has uncovered thousands of artifacts and a rough outline of some walls of the military fort, established in 1607 as part of North America's first permanent English settlement. Historians and state and county historical society members are embarking on a "grand experiment" to better interpret North Dakota history for the state's tourists and its citizens. "Crossroads: Making History for the Millennium" will consist of presentations examining the collections of county historical societies in Pembina, Barnes and McLean counties. Historians would also like to work with the state's tribal communities to promote their historical museums and artifacts. A slew of top Western historians are coming to Bozeman next week for a five-day conference on the significance of the Bozeman Trail. The conference begins Wednesday night at the Museum of the Rockies.

TEXAS 1912 is the year the ranch went out of business. The XIT, headquartered at Channing and encompassing 10 counties, came into existence after the Farwell brothers of Chicago agreed to build a new Texas Capitol in exchange for 3 million acres of Panhandle grassland. The Farwells borrowed money from England to develop the ranch, and the first cattle came onto the spread in 1885.

COLORADO Hope of learning more about the Anasazi was raised nearly three years ago when a wildfire at Mesa Verde unveiled hundreds of archaeological sites. But so far, scientists have seen nothing new. "It's not telling me anything new, anything I didn't know three or even 20 years ago," said Linda Cordell, an anthropologist and the director of the University of Colorado Museum.

UTAH ST. GEORGE -- No one may ever know the name of the 15-year-old boy abandoned in a cave 100 years ago. But the clues left where three St. George boys found him recently may answer some questions: How did he die? Why was he left in a cave closed in with rocks? Who put him there? Where did he live? And what was his life like? The research leading to those answers could also piece together an interesting slice of Western history.



Sunday July 25 On this date in 1865, the first Masonic Lodge in Arizona held its first meeting in the upper room of the governor's mansion at Prescott. On this date in 1921, the first edition of Arizona Highways came off the press. On this date in 1939, Tuzigoot was made a national monument by Presidential proclamation. On this date in 1917, Rancher Tom Price and his wife and two children were sleeping in their home near Mescal when water began pouring through the windows. The family barely had time to climb a mesquite tree at the bedroom window before the house and all that was in it was washed away by flood.

Monday, July 26 On this date in 1917, five miles of Ajo Highway were reported washed out, with culvert pipe exposed across the road at intervals. Motorists were warned to use searchlights or risk crashing into the culverts. Sasco and Silverbell were cut off entirely as all roads and bridges leading into those towns were destroyed. On this date in 1917, a violent hailstorm filled the streets of Flagstaff with six inches of ice. On this date in 1844, Mariano Samaniego, southern Arizona freighter, cattleman and operator of the stage line from Tucson to Oro Blanco who became a citizen of the United States under the terms of the Gadsden Purchase, was born. On this date in 1919, the city of Tucson gave 82 acres of land on South 6th Avenue to the War Department for use as an aviation field.

Tuesday, July 27 On this date in 1862, General Order Number 12, issued by Headquarters, Column from California, authorized the establishment of Camp Bowie at the Apache Pass Overland Mail Station. On this date in 1864, John B. ``Pie'' Allen made the first application for homestead land in Arizona.

Wednesday, July 28 On this date in 1899, Tucson businessmen subscribed $1,000 toward the cost of a wagon road to Globe. The shortest road then in use required 48 hours to make the trip. On this date in 1856, Major Enoch Steen was ordered to march from Fort Craig, New Mexico, with four companies of the 1st Dragoons to establish a post in the vicinity of Tucson. On this date in 1928, cloudburst waters ran down the slopes of the Pinal Mountains and swept through Miami, doing $500,000 worth of damage in seven minutes.

Thursday, July 29 On this date in 1852, Commodore Perry Owens, the famous long-haired, straight-shooting sheriff from Holbrook, was born. On this date in 1898, Pete Gabriel, former sheriff of Pinal County, died at the Monitor Mine on Mineral Creek.

Friday, July 30 On this date in 1921, Gov. Thomas E. Campbell canceled the state fair to save taxpayers $90,000. On this date in 1872, a corporation was formed in San Francisco to develop ``diamond fields'' in northern Arizona. The undertaking was eventually proven to be a swindle which became known as the Great Diamond Hoax.

Saturday, July 31 On this date in 1875, Captain A.W. Corliss, commanding at Fort McDowell, reported to the Department of Arizona Headquarters that the roof on one wing of the guard house had fallen in, and the roof on the main building was liable to fall in at any moment. On this date in 1903, the Prescott Journal Miner announced that the hanging of two murderers ``was from a professional or official standpoint'' a perfect success.