CALIFORNIA Hidden in the padres' scrawl are the names of some of the last full-blooded Gabrielino Indians. Anthropologists have grouped them under the labels Gabrielino and Fernandeno. Now, some members are busy trying to reconstruct a culture that vanished with the vaqueros and ranchlands of last century.

NEVADA If you venture into the great Nevada outback, in time you will stumble upon fine examples of ancient graffiti chipped out of the rocks by the mysterious Anasazi people. The P.C. gang hates the new book by Arizona State University physical anthropologist Christy Turner: "Man Corn: Cannibalism and Violence in the Prehistoric American Southwest." It's sad, actually, that hard evidence now tends to redefine the peace-loving, spiritual Anasazi as homicidal cannibals. On his way to seek his fortune in the California gold fields in 1849, Abner Blackburn struck pay dirt sooner than expected in a dusty gulch of western Nevada's high desert. But the 22-year-old pioneer couldn't resist the lure of California and pushed on, never dreaming his discovery would lead to one of the world's greatest bonanzas.


DINOSAUR FOSSILS TO STAY IN UTAH 07/17/99 LEHI, Utah (AP) _ Word Perfect co-founder Alan Ashton and other investors broke ground Friday on a $20 million museum to show off the remains of the world's biggest dinosaurs. Brigham Young University officials say they will loan part of their collection to the new museum at Lehi's Thanksgiving Point tourist attraction, just west of Interstate 15. BYU had considered transferring the school's famed dinosaur fossils to an out-of-state museum _ and was harshly condemned for it. Instead, BYU plans to better maintain its thousands of fossils now stored under stadium. ``We intend to keep the collection and make the most out of it we can _ and this new museum will help us,'' said Bart Kowallis, BYU's geology chairman. Construction will begin within weeks on the 83,000-square-foot North American Museum of Ancient Life, which will be so big ``you could fit a 747 (jetliner) and two smaller 727s into the building all at once,'' said Kyle Harris of KMA Architects of Provo. The space will be needed for 53 mounted dinosaur casts and skeletons, including two of BYU's world's largest dinosaurs: Supersaurus, which is at least 100 feet long, and Ultrasaurus, more than 44 feet tall. ``Our plan is to have more standing dinosaurs here in this museum than in any museum on the planet,'' said Cliff Miles, a research scientist with Western Paleontology Laboratories of Orem. Western Paleontology, which prepares and mounts dinosaur bones for museums worldwide, will build the museum's exhibits using many of its own fossils, and also will invest $1 million, Miles said. Thanksgiving Point, established by Alan and Karen Ashton, features gardens, a golf course, restaurants, a bakery, a soda fountain, shops and an animal park. Clive Winn, president of the Thanksgiving Point Institute, said the dinosaur museum, located on 7 acres, will be a commercial venture separate from the nonprofit institute and ``will be one of the largest dinosaur museums in the world.'' It will be built with a $14 million loan from Zions Bank and $6 million from Alan Ashton, Quantum Construction and Development of Provo, Western Paleontological Laboratories and other investors. Ashton is a major investor. ``We want to build an experience that enlivens people's senses and gets them excited about the great diversity of life this world has supported,'' Miles told 250 people at the groundbreaking. The museum's first phase will open in the fall of 2000 with a 350-seat giant-screen theater, an art gallery, cafe and gift shop. The dinosaur and fossil exhibits, fossil-preparation lab, science library, conference area and storage space will open in July 2001, Winn said. Exhibits will feature hundreds of dinosaur and other fossils, re-creations of dig sites, interactive exhibits and fossil preparation labs, suspended models of 100 flying reptiles, dioramas of ancient ocean life and a great hall of dinosaurs ``where you will see more dinosaurs... than in any other museum on the planet,'' Miles said. One exhibit will show ``two tyrannosaurs fighting over a kill.'' Utah County officials are delighted. ``What's good for Lehi is good for Highland and American Fork and for the county and for Utah. For the first time, we really have a first-class destination point in Utah County,'' County Commissioner Gary Herbert said.

ARIZONA Redman, a professor of anthropology who is heading a long-term study of the biological health of Phoenix and central Arizona cites several grounds for optimism: the remarkable adaptability of various life forms, human ingenuity and ample evidence that people can and do regulate themselves.,1249,100011151,00.html? The Navajo reservation is a vast and remote place. The best way to send a message is by pickup truck.

NEW MEXICO The Zia name and symbol are affixed to companies offering pest control, plumbing, window cleaning and security services. The people of tiny Zia Pueblo in north central New Mexico, all 850 of them, are deeply offended.

COLORADO Bruce Babbitt's call in May for increased protection of the dome's massive cache of ancient Indian artifacts and ruins has locals nervous about losing unlimited access to the desert mesas and canyons.


EAST TEXAS FIND COULD UNLOCK HISTORY OF CADDO PEOPLE 07/14/99 AUSTIN (AP) _ In the first-floor office of a nondescript state office building, Mark Parsons sorts the last remnants of a once-great civilization in brown cardboard box tops. There are colorful pottery shards. Rusted pieces of a flintlock gun. Scores of emerald-green and blood-red beads. Each relic is meticulously catalogued with a serial number. Parsons and fellow state archaeologists say the relics are the linchpin to reconstructing the late history of the Caddo people, Native Americans who occupied a vast region of Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas and Oklahoma for a millennium until they were forced onto a reservation 160 years ago. The artifacts were uncovered from an East Texas tree farm during a recent Texas Historical Commission excavation. The project confirmed that the site near Caddo Lake is Sha'chadinnih, the last autonomous Caddo village. Jim Bruseth, director of the commission's archaeology division, said Sha'chadinnih ranks with the Alamo among the most important historical sites in Texas. The remaining Caddoans, about 4,000 of whom live in southwestern Oklahoma, are less enthusiastic about the salvage of their ancestors' long-lost belongings. But Stacy Halfmoon, the tribe's cultural affairs officer, agreed the discovery has value. ``There is much to be learned,'' Ms. Halfmoon said. ``There is lost Caddo history because of those years when we were forced to flee for our lives ... As long as we can do it in a way that is respectful.'' Before their land was gradually taken by Europeans and traditional enemies the Osage, the Caddo farmed, hunted and traded around well-established villages throughout the region. Parsons said the Caddo were a powerful people, revered by other Native Americans as ``the father of tribes'' because of their influence and ability to mediate. They also were known for their artful pottery. ``The Caddo appear to have been, even in the earliest times, very good diplomats, able to establish good relations with tribes along their borders,'' said Cecile Carter, a historian and author of ``Caddo Indians: Where We Come From.'' Ms. Carter said the earliest recorded account referencing the tribe was from the Spanish about 500 years ago _ nearly 200 years before the French explorer LaSalle established a colony along the Texas coast. ``Before they crossed the Rio Grande, Indians told the Spanish that there is a nation to the north described as having a strong sociopolitical structure and that no one dared cross their borders without permission,'' Ms. Carter said. In the late 1700s and early 1800s, the Caddo became an important nation politically because of their position between the United States and the Spanish in what would later become Texas. The state, incidentally, is named for the Caddo word pronounced ``taysha,'' or ``friend.'' ``They were being courted right and left and made all these promises,'' Bruseth said. ``Then just as soon as those issues got resolved and Texas became a republic, the Caddo were no longer important so they were sort of kicked out of their homeland.'' Sha'chadinnih, a phonetic approximation of the Caddo name, was settled in about 1800 after disease _ probably the European import smallpox _ decimated their population. The estimated 1,500 to 2,000 people who lived there possibly represented the survivors of the last Caddo tribes combining to protect and boost their population, Bruseth said. The Caddo, who mistakenly believed their land was part of U.S. territory when in fact it was Mexico's, sold it to the United States in 1835. The last of them left in 1842, relocated first to a reservation near the Brazos River and to Oklahoma in the 1850s. ``The story of the Caddo people ... is one of terrible tragedy and terrible disconnect of their history,'' Bruseth said. ``Today the Caddo are largely relegated to a footnote in our history books.'' Lost for a century and a half, Sha'chadinnih was found in six weeks by two Louisiana men. Jaques Bagur, a Louisiana State University historian, scoured period maps that noted the village. Using Bagur's research, Shreveport avocational archaeologist Claude McCrocklin noted an 1841 map showed a distinct loop in James Bayou, near the bend where Caddo Lake sweeps northeast into Louisiana. McCrocklin, 78, found the same loop on a modern map and headed there with a metal detector in early 1998. It wasn't long before he found the village site, amid 70-foot pines on gently rolling terrain about 40 miles northeast of Marshall in Marion County. The land is owned by International Paper Co. ``It was great, the satisfaction,'' said McCrocklin, a former World War II prisoner of war and retired West Texas cattle buyer. ``This had been looked for for many years.'' The Cypress Valley Alliance, a Marion County nonprofit group dedicated to environmental and historical preservation, put McCrocklin in touch with state archaeologists and helped provide for an exploratory excavation by lining up free motel space and meals. The state provided no financial assistance, only staff time. The dig, which covered about 75 square yards during six days in February, verified the find and allowed researchers to draw some basic conclusions about Sha'chadinnih. Parsons said the village was a collection of hamlets or farmsteads with crops cultivated in between. He found evidence of their dealings with whites, including tiny brass thimbles probably made especially for trade to Indians. The Caddo sewed them on clothing. The ear of a brass kettle and other metal cookery at the site suggest that Caddo pottery already had lost importance. Bruseth said that recovered engraved pottery shards might help modern Caddo rediscover the lost art of their ancestors. Also among 1,350 artifacts recovered were Caddo corn and a ritual smoking pipe. The dig brought spiritual benefits for a few Caddoans who assisted, including Ms. Carter and a young Caddo man who sang traditional songs at the site. ``You could look up through those tall pine trees, the tall timber on the hill, and feel a rather indescribable connection between the old ones, as we call our ancestors, and myself,'' Ms. Carter said. Still, the Caddo have concerns. Ms. Halfmoon expressed frustration over a lack of authority at the site and said the tribe wants a lead role in deciding where to excavate next and who will take possession of the artifacts. ``I don't think we approach it with the same enthusiasm as does a scientist because of our beliefs ... and our respect for our ancestors,'' she said. ``We're glad to have that information. We want to know. We would like the opportunity to express our opinion on the disposition of the site.'' Neil McGinness, an International Paper forester and point man on the site, said the company is poised to enroll several hundred acres in and around the village site in its ``unique areas'' protection program. He said the company has told tribal officials of its intention to involve them and the Cypress Valley Alliance in decisions. ``We're really trying to do something that would please everybody,'' McGinness said. Under Texas law, any artifacts would belong to International Paper. McGinness said a few relics might be kept for local display, but most likely will be returned to the tribe. Duke DeWare, a Jefferson attorney and president of the Cypress B0049923 Valley Alliance, said the group would like to display some of the artifacts but is staking no claim. Also in question is who will pay for further excavations of the village. The state, which has set aside $250,000 for the ongoing excavation of LaSalle's sunken ships in South Texas, has budgeted no funds for continuing study of the Caddo site. The Legislature must make any such allocation. Parsons said four or five months of work would yield a good idea of what's there. Added Bruseth: ``It's a great project waiting to be funded.'' Wherever the broken pieces of Caddo history end up, archaeologists say the discovery of Sha'chadinnih will go far toward re-establishing the legacy of an important people. ``For a long period of time there's been a real bias in terms of identifying important Anglo-American sites in Texas,'' Bruseth said. ``Here we have one of the most important Native American sites in Texas, not only because of the artifacts we find but because it represents the last location of a culture.''

CYBERIA Girty became known as the ``Monster of the Maumee'' because he sided with the Indians and terrorized white settlers in Ohio in the 1700s. ``There was a whole other dimension to him. He had a wife and raised four kids. He was a patriot who fought for the Indians who raised him and grew to love him. CDC urges simple steps to lower hantavirus risk. For more information, call 1-877-232-3322 or look up hantavirus at About ten years ago, Douglas Preston became fascinated with Coronado's legendary search for the Seven Cities of Gold, so he saddled up and took off. That historical experience has paid off for Preston and his writing partner, Lincoln Child, in their unusual thriller "Thunderhead" (Warner, $25.95). At the heart of the tale is the mystery about what happened to a prehistoric tribe called the Anasazi. They vanished around 1300 and left behind some stunning cliff dwellings in New Mexico, southern Utah, and Colorado. Over the years, countless theories have been spun to explain their disappearance -- famine, pestilence, earthquakes, climate change. But Preston and Child, working off some cutting-edge archaeological theories, have tossed a new angle into the mix: cannibalism. Can Canadian science be replaced by much better funded, big science from outside the country? This is every Canadian scientist's worst nightmare. "But we have to develop and exploit our own expertise, especially when it involves important matters of heritage preservation." The world's coldest climate is the source of collectables. Rusty cans of pemmican from early polar expeditions along with the debris of many expeditions to the North and South Poles are worth their weight in gold in international salerooms. UND anthropology professor Dr. John A. Williams is teaching about human bodies, bones and clandestine grave sites. Innovative camera technology for anthropologists.