OKLAHOMA the Makers say they are increasingly moved by the profound importance of preserving the gifts they possess. The importance is rooted in the symbolism they represent and the memory of the Osage elders who stoked the flames of preservation before dying.


ECHOES OF WILD WEST LEGENDS RESONATE THROUGH KC'S CITY MARKET 07/06/99 KANSAS CITY, Mo. (AP) Legend has it, "Wild Bill" Hickok stood on these streets in 1873 and out-shot the chief of police with a pair of ivory-handled pistols. The target was a saloon sign. Whiskey joints topped with gambling halls and burlesque shows ringed the city's public square in that Wild West time. Hickok shot 10 times, coring the "o" in "saloon". "This is where it all began," historian Dory DeAngelo said over coffee on a recent morning at Cascone's, a breakfast mainstay on the same public square where Hickok, Wyatt Earp and Jesse James stirred the dust. The square was willed to the city in 1846 by the family of one of its earliest residents, William Gillis, on the condition that the land forever be preserved as a public square. Today, it is a farmer's market, art fair, concert stage and shopping district known as the City Market. The market area was the center of town for nearly a century after Francois Chouteau started the Town of Kansas in the 1820s at the foot of what is now Grand Avenue. "It was where the community gathered," DeAngelo said. "As early as the 1850s, it was where farmers brought their vegetables to market. Come down here on a Saturday or Sunday morning and you'll see, it still is." DeAngelo's grandfather, Dominic DeAngelo, sold his fish and produce from stall No. 11 for years. Dayton Johnson of Rich Hill carries on that tradition in No. 11 today, selling produce from his own fields. Without the Gillis family's gift, Kansas City's oldest community likely would have been bulldozed during the construction of Interstate 70, DeAngelo said. The need to preserve the public square forced the interstate to the south. The farmers market found today at 5th and Walnut, with its vendors' stalls piled high with vegetables and flowers, is much the same as it was a century ago. In the blocks just outside the market walls, careful observers can still see the outlines of the original Town of Kansas. The oldest intact streetscape in the city lies one block west of the market along Delaware Street, running from the levee to the old Board of Trade building on the southwest corner of 5th Street. The buildings have been renovated into offices, shops and loft apartments, but their facades are the same as Jesse James saw them in the town's first business district. Apparently, the legendary outlaw strolled down Delaware Street often. His uncle managed the Pacific House hotel, which still stands. The Main Street saloons where James and Hickok gambled, and the elaborate Wyandotte Street brothels that kept travelers in town in the 1870s and '80s are gone _ victims of time and progress. Also gone are their predecessors, like the Gillis House, where Santa Fe Trail pioneers and Rocky Mountains-bound gold diggers stayed after wandering up from the Missouri River steamboats in the 1850s. The sparsely furnished hotel _ the town's first _ stood above the levee near what is now Wyandotte Street. By the time Kansas City got its name in 1889, the town's business center was shifting southward. The City Hall and courthouse, built on the public square between 4th and 5th streets in the late 1800s, were rebuilt in the new center of town near 13th street in the 1920s. The market area struggled, but began a rebirth in 1990 that continues today. A Sunday morning stroll through the market may cross the same ground Gillis, Earp and James walked, but tie-dye T-shirts and face painters now can be found among the vegetable stalls, and the tunes of jazz bands share the air with the scent of funnel cakes. Weekends bring concerts and events _ art shows, powwows and barbecue cook-offs among them. And a museum within the market boasts the remnants and artifacts from the salvaged steamboat Arabia, which sunk in the Missouri River in 1856. Frank Cascone, whose father started the breakfast joint that bares his name, described the market as a multicultural, multigenerational gathering place. "It's a family place by day. At night, it's the partygoers," he said, ducking back to the restaurant's griddle to finish an order of French toast. Next door, Jazz Club 427 draws on Kansas City's renowned jazz talent, and Winslow's fills the air with the smell of barbecue. Across the road, where the Gillis Opera House stood a century earlier, the River Market Brewery packs in the crowds. A Vietnamese restaurant and Asian and Mediterranean groceries add a worldly flavor to the City Market. And the remnants of early Kansas City and its Wild West history are everywhere in the original public square: from the artifacts in the Steamboat Arabia Museum to the farmers who continue a 150-year tradition of carting their produce to market. He would love to attract the likes of the more mainstream anthropologists and archeologists -- even astronomers -- to step outside the boundaries and consider his beliefs. His beliefs center on the origin of many of the petroglyphs -- rock carvings and drawings that most attribute to early American Indians. Jeffries, a retired construction worker and hobby farmer, thinks they are older than that. Much older. He thinks they are an early form of writing called Ogham, used by Europeans. "I do this for curiosity," he said. "I do it as a hobby, so I'm not bound by tradition."

[ Toto, I don't think we're in Kansas anymore. ]

COLORADO The Denver museum hopes to become a regional repository of spiders, joining six other U.S. museums with major collections. Scientists use the specimens for research.

CREEDE HISTORY BEING UNEARTHED 07/08/99 CREEDE, Colo. (AP) Excavation of a site where housing for theater staffers will be built is unearthing tidbits about Creede's past. During the Fourth of July weekend, volunteers uncovered a headless Kewpie doll, a tarnished silver table spoon, an empty bottle of Healy & Bigelow's Kickapoo Indian Oil, with the cork pushed inside, and a broken bottle of Dr. Kilmer's Swamp Root, Kidney, Liver and Bladder Cure. Those artifacts, along with dozens of bits of glass, china and costume jewelry, were discovered where ashes from the Rio Grande Hotel were dumped for decades. "This just goes to show that one person's junk is another person's treasure 100 years later," said Richard Baxter. "It gives you a new perspective on throwing out the trash." Baxter is chief executive of the Creede Repertory Theatre, which took over the hotel, built in 1892 as a railroad boarding house. The theater plans a $1 million renovation of the old hotel, including restoring the interior to the luster of Creede's silver-mining boom. The building, one of the few in the southern Colorado town that survived floods and fires, was listed on the state Historical Register in 1996. "When we're finished, we'll display the artifacts in the hotel parlor area to tell the story of the hotel," Baxter said. Vince Spero, archaeologist for the Rio Grande National Forest, is supervising the archaeological dig. "I think it's a quite important site," Spero said. "The building was built in 1892 and was a boarding house for railroad employees, a hotel and later a private residence. How often do you have a site related to a specific group? You can tell a lot about the people who were working and living here." The dig is expected to continue on weekends throughout the summer.

NEW MEXICO The Zias and other tribes are looking to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office to stop commercial exploitation of their sacred symbols.

COLLEGE STUDENTS DIG FOR ANCIENT ANASAZI INDIAN ARTIFACTS 07/10/99 FARMINGTON, N.M. (AP) Classical music echoed off bluff walls and pyramid-shaped mounds scattered about an archaeological site at the B-Square Ranch in Farmington. Students from San Juan College have been sweating under the summer heat to learn about the first settlers of the San Juan Basin. "I've always been interested in what lies below the earth. I always thought I'd like to dig and see what I can find," said student archaeologist Julia Thom, an Kirtland Central High School exceptional program teacher. "It's not exactly how they depict it in Indiana Jones movies," she said. Robby Gagnebin, 16, also is taking the class to gain experience in the archaeology field. "This is something that looked good so I went for it. It's not my major, it just looked interesting," said the soon-to-be Farmington High School student. Gagnebin and Thom are two of nine students excavating a pit house dated between 800-1150 A.D. The site is the first dig for the Totah Archaeological Project, which is funded by the Bolack Foundation and San Juan College Foundation. The dig is on the ranch of Tommy Bolack, son of former New Mexico Gov. Tom Bolack. "The reason we are able to do this is because Tommy is very much into the Anasazi. He thinks he has a lot of interesting sites here," said Linda Wheelbarger, co-director of the Cultural Resources Management Program, which is conducting the six-week field school. "We're focusing on the Anasazi occupation even though there is proof of other people who lived here," Wheelbarger said of the Archaic time period and early Navajo settlers. The site is known as the Tommy Site since it was unearthed by Tommy Bolack in 1987 when he was clearing the area for a retention dam. It is one of a number on the ranch. "Hopefully, we'll learn about the Anasazi. I honestly believe the heart of the Anasazi was not in Chaco Canyon, but it was here," Bolack said. "You would certainly think it's where the water is. I think there was more people then, then there is now." Bolack first found a bowl in an onion field in 1959 as an 8-year-old. He has been fascinated ever since. "I said, 'Wow, this is neat.' From then on it's been, 'Wow, this is still neat,"' Bolack said. Tommy Site has two reopened trenches, three midden trash mounds, remnants of a pit house and a kiva. The students rotate weekly from the site to the top of the bluff southeast of Farmington surveying for new sites. Wheelbarger said students, using screens sitting on tripods, have found tools, pieces of pots and animal bones that were discarded into the ashes of trash mounds. Left behind are dirt mounds from the sifting. "We're looking for information on how they lived and what they used as their food sources and how they lived here. We'll keep working on this until we have information on the site," Wheelbarger said. Bolack said once all is learned from the Tommy Site, other sites on the ranch may be excavated to learn about the Anasazi. All collected artifacts are cataloged into a computer, analyzed and returned to Bolack. If human remains are found, under the guidelines of the New Mexico Cultural Properties Act, the medical examiner and the state Historical Preservation Office will be contacted. Then local tribes are called to prove tribal affiliation for reburial. "Maybe with the excavation we can start answering questions," Bolack said. "I feel there's a lot we don't know about them _ just because superficially we don't see other sites doesn't mean they weren't here. We're just trying to do what we can to help the community."

ARIZONA Federal regulators are proposing new restrictions that would limit the number of sightseeing flights over the Grand Canyon and expand "no-fly zones" over Native American cultural sights. The Federal Aviation Administration proposal announced Friday would ban flights over an area where the Colorado and Little Colorado rivers meet that is sacred to both the Hopi and Navajo. The plan also would eliminate an air route that passes over parts of the Hualapai and Havasupai reservations. Native American communities in the area have been pushing for years to have flights over their homes and sacred sites restricted.

UTAH In 1857, about 150 men, women and children from Northwest Arkansas began a trek to California in search of a better life. They never arrived. On Sept. 11, 120 lay dead in a meadow in southern Utah. Historians still sisagree on exactly what happened in the event known as the Meadow Mountain Massacre.

CALIFORNIA,2107,68527-108435-761230-0,00.html What happens when an established urban landscape meets - collides with, some might say - an immigrant population insistent on maintaining many traditional folkways?