MEXICO In the winter of 1916, Arthur Zimmerman sent a coded telegram to Eckhardt, the German ambassador in Mexico City, plotting an alliance between Germany and Mexico to recapture Texas, Arizona, and California. If the United States could somehow be drawn into war against Mexico, surely the Americans would be too preoccupied to interfere in the conflagration raging in Europe.

CALIFORNIA In the 1830s and 1840s, a bachelor cult of masculinity arose. Thousands of these young Americans flooded into California in 1849 and created not just a new frontier, a new industry and a new state, but a culture of extraordinary violence. The Gold Rush saw rates of homicide never equaled in American history. Web de Anza: an Interactive Study Environment on Spanish Exploration and Colonization of "Alta California" 1774-1776 offers researchers, educators, and students information resources related to the study of two eighteenth-century Spanish overland expeditions from Sonora (Arizona) in New Spain to northern California. This site features primary source materials, such as the original diaries and letters of the expeditionary leader, Juan Bautista de Anza, commandant of the Presidio of Tubac in Sonora. The site also provides a wealth of additional information including bibliographies, biographies, commentaries, maps, timelines, pictures, and sounds and video clips associated with the expeditions. Although its developers claim that the site is still under construction, it contains enough information to keep visitors occupied for hours, if not days. Web de Anza is hosted by the Center for Advanced Technology in Education at the University of Oregon.

ARIZONA The UA School of Renewable Natural Resources held a workshop to learn more about the applications and technique of dendrochronology and its application to the management of scarce natural resources. What does mudéjar architecture have to do with the skeletal remains of Jesuit Father Eusebio Francisco Kino in Sonora? Well, it's a bit difficult to explain, but once you're a chapter or two into "Finding Father Kino: The Discovery of the Remains of Father Eusebio Francisco Kino, S.J.," (Jorge Olvera H., Southwestern Mission Research Center, $40), it begins to make sense. Cornville Ranch is one of the oldest intact ranches in Cornville. The history of the ranch is somewhat sketchy. The original deed that Marti still holds from 1898 bares the name Dumas. Marti's father bought the ranch in Cornville from a man named 'Old Man Muldner. The Mason Lane Ditch, built in 1898, marks the entrance to the property.

NEW MEXICO In the late 1300s, the residents of Pecos Valley's six or seven small villages came together to form one large settlement known as Pecos Pueblo. Pecos became an important trade center, and during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries its population exceeded 2,000. Spanish explorers came to Pecos in 1540, and by the nineteenth century disease and warfare had cut the population to fewer than 30. In 1838 those remaining emigrated to Jemez. In 1837 'James' Johnson invited some Apaches to a feast. While he had them gathered in one place, the dastardly Johnson touched off a cannon loaded with glass, nails, and a length of chain, felling the innocent Apaches. Among the slain was Juan José Compá, the Apache chief. In retribution for this terrible deed, the Apaches cleaned out Santa Rita, and escalated the Apache war throughout the Southwest, including Mexico. It is a sensational story by any standard, containing treachery, the victim-perpetrator theme, and a bloodbath. These elements have led many a storyteller astray, and never more than in the legend of the Johnson Massacre. Historians otherwise thought to be reliable have told it incorrectly. The proposed ordinance which would establish the Roswell Historic Preservation Board and a Downtown Roswell Historic Overlay Zone is on its way to the City Council with a stamp of rejection placed on it by the Planning and Zoning Commission. Stan Euston, co-chairman of the Historic Preservation Committee, said the district is in danger of losing it history and identity. He said opponents of the ordinance are too concerned about having their rights taken away since many of the requirements in the ordinance are already in effect around the city. At the Sacramento Mountains Historical Society and Museum, displays of farm and ranch equipment are now ready for viewing by the public. Call the Museum at 682-2932 between 10am and 4pm. Cleveland Roller Mill Museum open 10-5., Saturday and Sunday, through Oct. 31. Just just west of Mora, NM Hwy 518. 387-2645.


COLORADO SHAPED BY VARIETY OF LEADERS 06/30/99 DENVER (AP) _ An Ohio-born Quaker doctor might not seem like a potential gambler, but John Evans quit the Chicago City Council to become governor of the rough-and-tumble Colorado Territory during the Civil War. The decision to leave his lakefront mansion bewildered his wife and his biographers. A humanitarian reformer of insane asylums, founder of Northwestern University and its host city of Evanston, Evans was a dedicated abolitionist who already had plenty on his plate. Two years after taking office, Evans was forced out as governor because of the Sand Creek Massacre. Six years later, he had become the state's first millionaire after putting together the financing to build a railroad connecting Denver to an intercontinental railway route through Wyoming. Later, Evans and his family helped establish the University of Denver and supported other causes. "We must do all the good we can," Evans said. Evans' move West was not surprising to former Colorado Gov. Dick Lamm, who said the Rockies are a magnet for "the people who want to throw the dice with life." "They simply are not satisfied with staying where they are, he said. Horace Tabor is another example. Born in Vermont, Tabor made millions on silver in Leadville. He won election as lieutenant governor and briefly served as a U.S. senator. Tabor divorced his first wife, Augusta, to marry Baby Doe in a well-publicized move and then ended his life in poverty when the silver market crashed. Evans and Tabor were among the first to be seduced by what Lamm calls "the talent drain," a phenomenon that draws people to places as different as Denver, San Francisco, Minneapolis or New York. "It's incredible when you think what it was like out here," Lamm said. "They took a desert and built a prospering civilization." Explorers, entrepreneurs and fortune hunters, trappers, miners, missionaries and other do-gooders joined farmers and ranchers flooding Colorado. The bewildering array was initially welcomed by the Indian tribes. Chief Little Raven of the Arapahoes rescued, and fed lost and starving miners in eastern Colorado. Chief Ouray of the Utes welcomed whites on the other side of the Continental Divide. In 1776, Franciscans Dominguez and Velez de Escalante traveled from Santa Fe, N.M., into Colorado, encountering Anasazi ghost villages. They were the first of many generations of Roman Catholic priests to minister to the faithful. Bishop Joseph Projectus Machebeuf of Denver put his diocese into debt to pay for churches, schools and hospitals in the 1860s. The United States took control of eastern Colorado in 1803 as part of the Louisiana Purchase. Western Colorado was seized after the defeat of Mexico in 1848. In 1806, Army Lt. Zebulon Pike explored the region, sighting Pikes Peak near present-day Colorado Springs. William Bent and his partners built trading forts along the Arkansas River in southeastern Colorado in the 1820s. Kit Carson was chief hunter for the fort before becoming famous as Charles Fremont's guide to California. Carson later became an advocate of Indian causes. John Wesley Iliff, a Denver businessman, became "Cattle King of the Western Plains," fattening cattle on his ranch near Fort Lupton to feed workers building railways. His family helped fund refuges for orphans. Gen. William Jackson Palmer, a veteran of the Civil War and builder of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad, is credited with founding Colorado Springs. A German orphan who arrived in the United States in 1868 as a stowaway changed his name from Kohrs to Coors. He moved to Colorado looking for pure water to use in brewing beer, and found it near Golden. Legend has it that German immigrant Charles Boettcher told his wife to leave some of their belongings behind on a trip to Germany so he could bring sugar beet roots back to Colorado. He had already made a fortune as a hardware store owner in Cheyenne, Wyo., Greeley and Fort Collins. Women also played an important role in Colorado's history. Molly Brown, an early feminist who survived the sinking of the Titanic, supported humanist causes, and once invited displaced Indians to camp outside her Denver home. Aunt Clara Brown, a freed slave, earned her keep on a wagon train to Colorado as a cook. She struck gold in Central City by opening the raucous town's first laundry, charging 50 cents per item. She donated some of her earnings to help build St. James Methodist Church. "Colorado was built on the shoulders of the unknown worker _ the guy that drove the stagecoach over to Leadville, the guy who hauled the ore from Telluride to Durango. The woman whose hair turned prematurely white in the prairie wind," said Noel. Colorado men and women contributed much more than wheat or ore to the nation. Judge Benjamin Barr Lindsay took pity on waifs abandoned in the Mile High City, endeavoring to protect them from sadistic jailers. Florence Sabin, the daughter of a mining engineer, became a pioneer in medicine and was instrumental in making mammograms available. Spencer Penrose, a rich Philadelphian who added to his wealth with investments in Cripple Creek gold and Utah copper, built the road up Pikes Peak and the Broadmoor Hotel. Robert Speer did his best to make Denver a "Paris on the Platte," diverting money to parks and cultural attractions. Gov. Ralph Carr became a legend when he tried to protect Japanese-Americans during World War II. Longtime Congressman Wayne Aspinall, a Palisade Democrat, won funding for water projects in the West that enabled the development of irrigation and provided hydroelectric power for industry. Lamm was elected governor in 1974 by a population sick of growth, riding to victory on his credentials as leader of a successful campaign against staging the 1976 Olympics in the state. Singer John Denver extolled the state with songs like "Guess He'd Rather Be in Colorado," later lamenting the success of his songs in bringing "more people, more scars upon the land." Pat Schroeder became a voice for feminist causes as a congresswoman from Denver for 24 years. Federico Pena served in the state House before an upset victory in 1983 made him Denver's mayor, a milestone for the state's large Hispanic population. Pena later was appointed transportation secretary and later energy secretary by President Clinton.

TEXAS Historic cemeteries are being maintained and restored under a special contract with the Texas Department of Corrections, which regularly sends inmate crews to do mowing, cleaning, monument repair and other supervised work. In recent years, old cemeteries have become a rapidly growing area of cultural tourism as people flock to see names they readily recognize from local, state and national history. Supporters of a national Route 66 preservation bill were thwarted last year but succeeded Wednesday when the U.S. House of Representatives passed the act by voice vote. "Today, we have preserved a piece of history and expanded tourism for those cities and towns in New Mexico and across the nation who are on America's Main Street," Wilson said. "Coordination of private, local, state and federal efforts will preserve a bygone era in American history that can still be revisited and will promote economic redevelopment in small towns that were bypassed by the interstate highway system."

CYBERIA,1249,100008842,00.html? The "Eagle Spirit Dancers," a multitribe American Indian dance troupe are the first American Indian dancers to be invited to Mongolia. Mongolians share a common ancestry. "The Mongolian language is very similar to Navajo," Crank said. "However, some words are opposite in meaning to our own."