Got CALICHE ? http://www.swanet.org/caliche.html
HEAD OF SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION TO QUIT AT END OF YEAR 01/23/99 After four years at the head of the Smithsonian Institution, Secretary I. Michael Heyman is expected to announce Monday that he will retire at the end of this year. Heyman had been asked to stay beyond the regular five-year term but he told the Smithsonian's 17-member Board of Regents that he wants to return to California, said officials speaking on the condition of anonymity. Heyman has had his share of criticism during his tenure. He took the post in the midst of a controversy over an exhibit at the Air and Space Museum on the dropping of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima. Some historians and veterans' groups complained that the exhibit was too sympathetic to the Japanese. When he had the show revised, other critics found it not sympathetic enough. A year ago the Smithsonian dropped an outside sponsor of a lecture series, the New Israel Fund, after a congressman complained that the promised contribution of $20,000 by the organization, which promotes conciliation between Arabs and Jews, could be seen as criticism of the Israeli government's security policy. A lawyer and city planner, Heyman spent the 1980s as chancellor at the University of California, Berkeley. He took his present job in 1994 after serving as counselor to Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt. This year, the Smithsonian will break ground for the new Museum of the American Indian, to open in 2003. The institution comprises 16 museums and the National Zoo, all of which are in Washington and charge no admission fee, except for the National Design Museum in New York, known as the Cooper-Hewitt. The Museum of the American Indian has a branch in New York. They are projected to spend $569.7 million in the fiscal year that ends Sept. 30 _ up from $458 million when Heyman took over in 1994. Last year the Smithsonian museums had 31.5 million visitors, including 3 million at the zoo. Only a small portion of its 140 million objects and specimens _ 122 million of them in the National Museum of Natural History _ are on view at any one time. For its 150th anniversary in 1996, the Smithsonian sent a special exhibit, 300 of its treasures called ``America's Smithsonian,'' to visits by 3 million people around the United States.
UNSINKABLE LEADVILLE FINDS A WAY TO SURVIVE WITHOUT MINES 01/22/99 In 1882, Oscar Wilde visited this rough-and-tumble mining town high in the Rockies and read the works of Renaissance author Benvenuto Cellini to a group of townspeople. The crowd liked it so much they asked Wilde why he hadn't brought the writer along. Wilde explained that Cellini was dead. ``Who shot him?'' someone in the crowd asked. As of Friday, the mines that made Leadville a tough and pitiless Wild West outpost are all gone. But while the place is a far cry from its heyday, when 40,000 people packed the city, Leadville is no ghost town. In fact, Leadville is booming again, a growing middle-class community of charming Victorian homes. ``Leadville will never die because living here becomes the most important thing in your life,'' said Stephanie Olson, who gave up her law practice to care for her kids and run a small scenic railroad in Leadville, at 10,430 feet the nation's highest incorporated city. Part of Leadville's rebirth can be attributed to the success _ and sheer expense _ of the nearby Vail and Copper Mountain ski resorts, where home prices start at $300,000. That has forced resort employees to turn to Leadville and its more affordable homes. These days, most of Leadville's revenue comes from small businesses, tourism and people living here and working in the ski-resort towns. Leadville has also become a magnet for ultramarathoners and other extreme sports enthusiasts. It also holds burro races and ski joring, in which a rider on horseback pulls a skier through an obstacle course down Harrison Avenue, the city's main street. But history remains the area's biggest draw. Leadville was once part of the biggest silver-mining district in the country. Though Abe Lee first struck gold in the region in 1859, the big fortunes were made in the 1870s when silver made Meyer Guggenheim, Horace Tabor and J.J. Brown _ husband of the "Unsinkable'' Molly Brown of Titanic fame _ the Silver Kings. Hundreds of mines were carved in the 20-square-mile district, some on top of each other. At Leadville's peak during the 1870s, tens of thousands of people caroused on the dirt streets, filling brothels and saloons. Wilde, gunfighter Doc Holliday and suffragette Susan B. Anthony were among the colorful characters drawn to the boomtown 100 miles west of Denver. Hangings were frequent and popular, drawing crowds of up to 10,000. Today, a judge takes visitors on a tour of 21 spots where murders were committed. The recent influx of middle-income residents is changing the face of Leadville, squeezing out lower-income immigrant workers _ many of them Hispanic _ who had become a burden on the county's budget. John Ozello, head of social services for Lake County, said his welfare caseload has dropped from about 60 cases a month to 12 in the last several years, and fewer people are on food stamps. The population is about 8,500, up 40 percent from 1990. Virtually every available home has been sold and builders cannot keep up with demand. Visitors now can sip lattes and read The New Yorker at the Cloud City Coffee House, in what was the atrium of Tabor's Grand Hotel. Not everyone is pleased with the transformation of the mining town to what some would call a tinsel town. State Sen. Ken Chlouber, a former miner, fears for the town's soul. ``When we lost our mining industry we had to reach every which way, and now we're getting a lot of developers. They want to pick the bones of what is left,'' he said. But nobody seems overly worried about the miners who lost their jobs with the closing of Leadville's last mine. ASARCO's Black Cloud mine, where lead, zinc, gold and silver were taken from the ground, had been losing more than $200,000 a month. Hundreds of jobs are available in the region. Also, other mining companies already are recruiting them. Many of the jobs in the region require a drive ``over the hill,'' as the roads to the Copper Mountain and Vail ski resorts are called. But the county is trying to keep jobs at home. It is working to build a small prison, Colorado Mountain College is expanding and Copper Mountain is considering moving some of its operations to Leadville. ``We're unsinkable,'' Chlouber said. ``But sometimes we get wet.''
TEMPE'S NEWER BUILDINGS MIMIC RESTORED LANDMARKS 01/22/99 They rise proudly from Mill Avenue, with old-style, red-brick facades that stand out among the newer, glitzier buildings. Echoing in their walls are hundreds of tales from the days of territorial Arizona and pioneer life in Tempe. Three structures on Mill will be 100 years old in 1999 and 2000: the Andre building, the Tempe Hardware building and the Casa Loma Hotel. While they're not the oldest buildings on the street, they harken back to another boom-time in Tempe history _ one that set the foundation for today's. ``The old timers actually are the ones that are the identity-givers for the downtown, even though they're now being outnumbered and outsized,'' said Mark Vinson, the city's historic preservation officer. City planners encourage new developers to emulate the old styles. Some say that was done with success at Gordon Biersch Brewery along Mill, when developer MCW Holdings tried to mimic the facade of Tempe Hardware. ``The materials and the detailing, we try to carry forth or at least use as inspiration on the newer buildings, some more successfully than others,'' Vinson said. ``Without them, there wouldn't be anything to reference and point to.'' These three buildings and others on Mill might not have been renovated and rehabilitated if Tempe residents committed to preservation in the late 1970s and early 1980s hadn't prevailed. There were people at the time who thought revamping Mill meant razing everything. Even then-Councilman Bill Ream said rehabilitation was not ``economically feasible.'' It's a good thing they weren't torn down, Vinson said. All three are on the National Register of Historic Places. ``We would have lost the character, the human scale,'' he said. ``The architecture of the early 1970s was concerned with structural expression and impressive building forms, but not with the human scale of the materials. There wasn't a lot of respect for tradition and character.'' The Andre building was originally a two-story brick structure when saddlemaker R.G. Andre had it built in 1888. Fire gutted its meat market and saddle and harness shop. It began to rise again _ this time with three floors _ in November 1899 and reopened in February 1900. From 1916 to 1930, Wickliffe's Furniture and Undertakers occupied the first floor and was the longest commercial tenant. Social lives in territorial Arizona often centered around lodges and secret societies, so the Andre's doors were opened regularly for meetings of the Knights of Macabees and the Grand Fraternity Butte City Lodge. By the late 1970s, its upstairs windows were boarded up and the Circus clothing store occupied the ground floor. Beginning in 1979, the Andre went through ``an extensive rehabilitation,'' Vinson said. Since city planners had become aware that Tempe could experience earthquakes, new building codes demanded the Andre be reinforced with a steel frame. Today, Paradise Bar and Grill occupies the bottom floor; architects and photographers are among those who rent the second floor. The Casa Loma Hotel has been an area landmark since it was built in the Victorian style in 1888. The two-story building burned in 1894 and was rebuilt as a three-story hotel in 1899, with a grand reopening party in 1900. Its famous guests have included President William McKinley in 1901 and Buffalo Bill Cody in 1911. In 1927, the hotel was remodeled into the Spanish Colonial Revival Style. While the Victorian style focused on elaborate woodwork on balconies and railings, Spanish colonial was more simple, with plain, plastered walls and red tile roofs. In the 1970s, the Casa Loma was remodeled again and included bars called ``The Cave'' and ``Professor Pudgie's Rock Emporium.'' Upstairs, there were apartments. Today, the Casa Loma's tenants are all offices, aside from Mill Landing Restaurant on the ground floor. Construction began on the Tempe Hardware building in April 1898 and was completed in April 1899. Tempe residents marveled at its three stories (that was tall for the day) and its cement floor (the only one in town at the time). On the ground floor, Tempe Hardware Company did business from 1906 to 1976, under founders B.B. Moeur, M.E. Curry and George L. Compton. The second-floor ballroom was used for weekly dances, City Council and political meetings and church services of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ``I just love this building, the location, the high ceilings, the detail,'' said architect Stuart Siefer, who bought the building in the late 1970s and rehabilitated it in 1982. His offices are now on the third floor. ``Every time we remodel, we see how they framed it, their plaster techniques,'' he said. ``You almost have the sense you're communicating with people from 100 years ago.''
http://www.azcentral.com/travel/destinations/arizona/golden/casagranderuins.shtml A roof protects the Casa Grande, which was built by the Hohokam people in the early 1300s as part of a larger compound. A ball court and several other ruins can be found in the same area. Nearly 3,000 tons of caliche went into the four-story structure. The Hohokam lacked good building materials in the desert so they went underground, using caliche that they found a few feet down. Father Eusebio Kino found the ruin in 1694 while tracing the Gila River to Yuma. He named it Casa Grande and wrote in his journal about the structure: "The Casa Grande is a four-story building, as large as a castle, equal to the largest church in these lands of Sonora."
http://www.azcentral.com/news/0123parkcut.shtml Arizona spent $6.5 million to make Homolovi Ruins State Park a showpiece: a state-of-the-art visitor center, improved roads and campsites. But the whole place could shut down. The Legislature's budget proposal calls for closing the park to save money. Homolovi (pronounced hoe-MAHL-oh-vee) has more than 300 archaeological sites, with rock art and the remains of Anasazi pueblos from more than six centuries ago. Ceballos recalls what happened before the 4,000 acres were protected: "They were going in with backhoes and bulldozers and getting all the pots and artifacts out." And there's another candidate for the ax: McFarland State Historic Park in Florence, an adobe building that dates from the Wild West era. The old adobe, built in 1877-78 as a courthouse and pressed into service for other uses over the years, is the centerpiece of the chamber's plan to boost tourism.
http://www.azcentral.com:80/wv/0123nwnative.shtml Kachinas are spiritual beings. Centuries ago, when Hopis found themselves in a severe drought, the image of the kachina came to them. They worshipped him for rain. The kachinas became carriers of rain, a symbol of protection and guidance.
http://www.eurekalert.org/releases/uwm-fwt012199.html The mythical road to riches in the American West has always been tied to a deeper coal mine, a bigger clear-cut, a greater take from the earth. But those boom-and-bust operations have produced more ghost towns than prospering ones. We're becoming prisoners of our perspectives that are rooted in the time of Frederick Jackson Turner," Freudenburg says. "That era of the frontier may have died, but the logic of the frontier still hasn't."
http://deseretnews.com:80/dn/view/0,1249,30007749,00.html? With new doubts raised about the authenticity of a battered chest found in Death Valley, a National Park Service expert painstakingly examined its contents Thursday to determine if they were really left behind 150 years ago by a lost Gold Rush expedition. Park Service officials said it's likely that scientific analysis will be necessary to verify the find. Meanwhile, one noted Death Valley authority expressed new doubts about the chest's authenticity because of a term — "grubstake" — used in a list of its contents purportedly written by pioneer William Robinson. A gold seeker of the time would never have called the $52.75 left in the chest a grubstake, a concept that developed in the waning years of the Gold Rush, said Richard Lingenfelter, a research physicist at the University of California, San Diego, who in 1986 wrote a comprehensive history of Death Valley. The earliest reference he has seen to the term came from the late 1850s.
http://www.fresnobee.com/localnews/story/0,1225,61566,00.html To say this is the best or most popular Internet web site in Fresno may be a stretch. But "A Guide to Historic Architecture in Fresno, California" is a sure-bet favorite. For rummagers in history's bin, it's the definitive encyclopedia of what still stands in this city's 114th year. Among its 196 files and 306 pictures are 193 historic buildings - including 26 on the National Register of Historic Places - 37 biographies of architects, and numerous tours to take by foot, car and World Wide Web. There are links to other historic preservation Web sites.
http://www.detnews.com/1999/autos/9901/24/01200108.htm A group of political, industry and educational leaders hopes to capitalize on the region's automotive industry history when it unveils six potential tourism corridors next month to the National Park Service. The Automobile National Heritage Area Partnership will promote the areas, highlighting the industry's history, presence and effect on southeastern Michigan, to increase tourism and to encourage investment and development.
http://www.deseretnews.com:80/dn/view/0,1249,30007863,00.html? Funds have been earmarked for numerous projects aimed at drawing tourists to the area, including signs to designate the Dinosaur Diamond, new brochures and the creation of a management plan. The Dinosaur Diamond extends from Fruita north to Rangely and across the eastern border of Utah.
http://www2.nando.net:80/noframes/story/0,2107,10405-17895-127315-0,00.html This is the most spectacular fossil ever found," says John Ruben, an Oregon State University zoologist who headed the U.S.-Italian team that examined the creature. Unlike most fossils, he explains, this one displays internal organs and even some muscle fibers, in addition to the creature's skeletal structure. Thus, he says, it's possible to study biological features that until now could only be inferred from bone structure.
http://www.boston.com:80/dailyglobe2/023/nation/Italian_prosecutor_of_artifact_looters_under_investigation+.shtml A Sicilian magistrate who has spent the last two decades vigorously prosecuting grave-robbers who excavate antiquities for illicit smuggling abroad now faces an inquiry that he himself has been involved in the illegal antiquities trade.
http://www.africanews.org/central/zambia/stories/19990122_feat22.html In its continuous effort to push for the return of cultural property, the intergovernmental committee for promoting the return of cultural property to countries of origin convenes its second session from 25 to 28 January at UNESCO in Paris. The body, which also promotes the restitution of cultural property in case of illicit appropriation, will take stock of the situation and pave the way for new moves, according to a UNESCO press release. The meeting would also focus on establishing a code of ethics for dealers in cultural property to ensure effective control of illicit traffic in cultural property, the electronic transmission of information concerning stolen cultural property, standardising description and the possibility of creating a fund for the recovery of cultural property.