Fallout shelters, typology, stylistic change & battleship curves, spatial organization of cold war infrastructure

COLD WAR-ERA LAW TAKEN OFF THE BOOKS IN GRAND JUNCTION 02/23/99 In 1970, Grand Junction officials passed a law that reflected the era: all new and reconstructed public buildings had to include a fallout shelter. "There was concern _ not just in Grand Junction, but throughout Colorado," said Earl Payne, a Grand Junction city councilman and 51-year resident of the city. "This is when there was a red phone hooked up directly to Moscow." But now the Cold War is over, and Payne and six fellow council members last week quietly repealed the ordinance, unwilling to tack any extra cost onto the $6.9 million city hall reconstruction project slated to kick off this spring. While the vote was considered simply a housekeeping measure by a council convinced the law's time had come and gone, others marked its departure as reflecting the end of an era of Cold War nuclear activity. It was a time when schools were built with slanted roofs jutting over entrances and exits _ an effort to shield refugees from the ugly effects of radioactive fallout. A pamphlet entitled "Family Survival Plan" was mailed out to every household in the Grand Valley and the construction of home fallout shelters was encouraged by Mesa County's director of civil defense. "At the time it was a very real thing, because we were the center for strategic minerals," said Dave Bailey, curator of history at the Museum of Western Colorado, addressing the 1970 law. "A purchasing center for the uranium was here in Grand Junction." The primary Colorado targets of Soviet nuclear weapons were likely the Cheyenne Mountain military facility near Colorado Springs and the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons plant near Golden, Bailey said. But the emergence of the Western Slope as a center for uranium mining may have heightened awareness of Cold War issues. "I don't think we were a primary target but we were probably a secondary target," Bailey said. "I do think the nuclear arms race was on everybody's minds." One historian said he was surprised the Grand Junction City Council waited until 1970 to address the fallout shelter issue. Advertisements in local papers throughout the 1960s touted home bomb shelter kits, said Duane Smith, a professor of history at Fort Lewis College in Durango. "I'm not surprised that Grand Junction passed one of those ordinances," said Smith, an expert on Colorado history. "It's just like anything else, you have ordinances hanging around long after the era that you need them."

HISTORIC MEDICINE TREE SOUTH OF DARBY IS DYING 02/24/99 The Medicine Tree, a ponderosa pine along the highway south of Darby that has been held sacred by generations of Salish Indians, appears to be dying. Brown needles throughout the Medicine Tree stand out from the green surroundings. For several years, the tree had had some dead growth at the top but this summer it quickly spread throughout the tree. "It really deteriorated," said Salish tribal attorney Joe Hovenkotter. "We're not sure what is going on," said Tony Incashola, director of the Salish Culture Committee. "We've had some people doing some testing." "In the past, people have tried to destroy it. They salted it. Luckily the ground was frozen at the time. We were notified and able to remove it," he said. The tree, estimated at 350 years old, has been at the center of a road-improvement controversy for U.S. 93. Indians have protested widening the road, which is between the tree and the nearby East Fork of the Bitterroot River. The tree and the surrounding area figure prominently in traditional creation stories of the Salish, which tell of when Coyote traveled across the land, killing monsters _ the natisqelix or literally, the "people-eaters" _ in order to prepare the world for humans. At one point in these travels, Coyote was warned of an enormous, wicked bighorn sheep near the south end of the Bitterroot Valley that killed all passersby. Coyote realized that he had to destroy this creature. He tricked the ram into ramming the tree, then killed the beast while its horns were stuck in the tree trunk. Coyote then stood by the tree and said, "In the generations of human beings to come, there will be no such wicked creatures. This tree will be a place for human beings to leave offerings of their prized possessions, and to give thanks, and to pray for their well-being, for good fortune and good health." Today, Indians and others continue to place offerings on the tree's branches. Mixed in among the traditional Indian gifts of tobacco are plastic garlands hanging from the tree's branches. Family pictures of children are tacked onto the tree's trunk. Odds and ends are either tied around the tree or tacked onto it. Arrows are caught in upper branches. Tribal elders are concerned that some of the things that are not real prayer offerings desecrate the site and possibly harm the tree. An information sign, identifying the tree and explaining its history, was removed several years ago because it was drawing too much attention to the area. The meaning and spiritual value of the land will not be altered by the tree's death, Hovenkotter said. "The site is important. The tree is the resource that ... contributed to the legends of the site."

If anyone can assist Marta, Please e-mail her directly -- From: Allen Dart To: Marta Evry Date: Thu, 25 Feb 1999 Dear Marta: Old Pueblo Archaeology Center does not offer what you're looking for at this time. I am forwarding your query to Brian Kenny, administrator of the Southwestern Archaeology web site (, in the hopes he will pass it one to SWA's 300+ e-mail subscribers for their help. Good luck in your search. Allen Dart Old Pueblo Archaeology Center, Tucson > Marta Evry wrote: I don't know whether or not you would know about this sort of thing, but I figured it would be worth a shot... I'm interested in an intensive (several consecutive days to a week) workshop in traditional pueblo pottery. I live in Los Angeles, so I would have to plan ahead to make a trip. Ideally I would like to do a workshop in the late spring. Any info would be appreciated... Thanks, Marta A uneral service will be held today for Pamela Cook Stanbury, an anthropologist who was an adviser to the US Agency for International Development. Ms. Stanbury died of cancer Saturday in her home in Silver Spring, Md. She was 44. She was born in Brookline. She graduated from Sarah Lawrence College and earned a doctorate at the University of Arizona. "Grand Canyon Women: Lives Shaped by Landscape," tells the stories of 18 women with gristle and grit equal to the great gorge. The hottest qualification for corporate high-fliers is no longer the law degree from Harvard or the business studies certificate from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It is anthropology, writes Allan Hall from New York. American companies, eager to squeeze ever-more dollars out of a booming economy, are racing to sign up anthropology graduates in the belief they bring an insight to money making that business schools alone fail to do. Universities across America have beefed up or started up anthropology courses to cater for the new demand from Wall Street and beyond. Citicorp was one of the first major players to recruit anthropologists. Steve Barnett was hired in the credit cards division after the company wanted a fresh take on identifying people who do not pay their bills. The World Megalithic Association (WMA) preserves megalithic culture. The association was founded Dec. 7 last year in Korea with the participation from over 20 countries. The group campaigns to raise public awareness of prehistoric stone tombs and monuments by sponsoring megalithic cultural festivals and symposiums. Impress drowsy bankers and consultants with a few dazzling allusions to antiquity. A new get-cultured-quick scheme for the status-conscious: good old-fashioned mystery novels, fuel-injected with high-octane history lessons and an aura of pseudo-cerebral fluff.

ATTENTION: AZ Legislative Update -- From: Charles Gilbert Thursday, February 25, 1999 Subject: HB 2397 -- House Appropriations Committee cancelled meeting last Tuesday. Expect big bunch up next Tuesday. Rep Allen likely to withdraw in favor of study committee. Needs push.

[ SASIG Ed. Note -- I received a letter from the Arizona State Land Commissioner justifying why his agency submitted AZ HB2397 without consulting with or convincing other state agencies and Native American Tribes. I am preparing a reply. View the letter at ; CAUTION -- don't try to print the asld.txt letter directly from your browser; highlight the text of the letter completely, copy (CNTRL+C), and paste (CNTRL+V) it into your word processing software for easier reading or printing. ]