Got CALICHE ? htp://

KENNEWICK MAN EXAMINATION BEGINS FEB. 25 02/18/99 A team of scientists selected by the U.S. Department of the Interior will begin its exam of the 9,300-year-old collection of bones known as Kennewick Man next week. The work will be conducted at Seattle's Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture, where Kennewick Man has been stored since October. Francis McManamon, chief archaeologist for the National Park Service, announced his team on Wednesday. Members are: Jerome Rose, professor of anthropology at the University of Arkansas at Fayetteville and an expert on teeth and bones; Joseph Powell, a physical anthropologist and curator at the Maxwell Museum of Anthropology at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque. He has examined most of the skeletons in North and South America that are 8,000 years or older; Julie Stein, an anthropology professor at the University of Washington and a curator at the Burke Museum. She is an expert in geoarchaeology; Gary Huckleberry, an anthropologist at Washington State University in Pullman. He is an expert in geoarchaeology and western North American archaeology; John Fagan, president of Archaeological Investigation Northwest in Portland, Ore. He is an expert in the study of stone tools. The examination, which begins Feb. 25, will take several days. The analysis is intended to establish whether federal law requires that the bones be given to Indian tribes for immediate reburial. The nearly complete skeleton of Kennewick Man was found in July 1996 along the Columbia River. Because the skull reportedly has non-Indian features, a group of prominent scientists sued for the right to study the bones. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers had planned to turn the bones over to a coalition of Northwest Indian tribes who claimed Kennewick Man as an ancestor.

SANTA FE MUSEUM OBTAINS $20 MILLION WORTH OF INDIAN ARTIFACTS 02/20/99 Thousands of Indian artifacts worth an estimated $20 million and dating back to A.D. 500 have been donated to the Museum of Indian Arts and Culture/Laboratory of Anthropology. About 25,000 pieces, from pottery to toys, were donated to the museum in Santa Fe by the School of American Research, a private nonprofit organization. The pieces came from the school's collection of historic and contemporary materials collected in New Mexico and the Southwest during the 1900s. The items were presented to the museum during a ceremony Thursday. "It's a wonderful day for us all," Thomas A. Livesay, director of the Museum of New Mexico, said during the ceremony in Santa Fe. Livesay and Douglas Schwartz, president of the School of American Research, signed an agreement that formally transferred the collection to the museum. Louise Stiver, a museum curator, said the donated collection includes ancient Indian pottery and arrowheads, as well as contemporary art such as blankets. Other items include jewelry, textiles, paintings, household items, clothing and tools. During the ceremony, Schwartz symbolically handed over to Livesay two pieces of the school's collection: a Western-Apache basket dating to the late 1800s and a Navajo black manta, or blanket, made in 1750.

TEXAS HISTORY DELVES INTO CYBERSPACE 02/16/99 The vast history of the Lone Star State has delved into cyberspace and can now be downloaded with two clicks of a mouse, University of Texas at Austin officials announced. An online version of the New Handbook of Texas, a 7,000-page, six-volume encyclopedia, offers some 23,500 articles about the men and women who shaped the state, just like its 1996 printed form. "This online project opens a window to the culture and history of Texas for millions of schoolchildren, historians, genealogists and anyone interested in the Lone Star State," said Larry R. Faulkner, UT president. The online handbook is a joint project of the University's General Libraries and the Texas State Historical Association. The TSHA spent some 13 years updating the original Handbook of Texas, a two-volume reference book first published in 1952 with a 1976 supplement of three volumes. More than 3,000 authors and editors worked on the New Handbook of Texas, which focuses more closely on the historical traditions of the African American and Mexican American communities as well as contributions made by women and women's organizations. "The story of Texas must be constantly retold to meet the needs of new times and new generations," said Ron Tyler, director of TSHA. Users may select entries by scrolling through an alphabetical list or via a search mechanism. The TSHA will continue to publish the New Handbook of Texas in book form and, later, as a CD-ROM. The online version of the New Handbook of Texas can be accessed through the Texas State Historical Association at or through the University's General Libraries at

PRESERVATION OF STEEL COMPANY RECORDS SOUGHT 02/16/99 The paperwork generated by more than a century of steel operations in Pueblo chronicle not only the life and times of the mining, steel and railroad industries, but an era of the West, and now officials are working on their preservation. The archives are those of the CF&I Steel plant, now owned by Oregon Steel, and the Colorado Historical Society, the Pueblo Historical Society, and Pueblo Library District and Pueblo city and county governments all suggest the documents be assembled at a repository. "So many people in Pueblo have family ties to CF&I that the collection should remain here," said George Williams of the Pueblo Historical Society. "The job is too big for any one organization. But the materials now scattered throughout the old CF&I plant ought to be preserved in a shape and form that people can use 50 or 100 years from now." The collection would preferably be accessible to the public and definitely located in Pueblo, officials said. Faded signs on Interstate 25 near the Central Avenue exit still announce "CF&I Steel." But following them to Abriendo and Baystate avenues leads to the headquarters for the firm now known as Rocky Mountain Steel, operated by Portland-based Oregon Steel with about 800 employees. There, legal assistant Janet Boyd, who has been in charge of CF&I's records for nearly five years, said, "It's a fascinating body of material that touched the lives of so many people here." In its heyday, shortly after the turn of this century, when it was acquired by oil magnate John D. Rockefeller Jr., CF&I and its subsidiary companies employed more than 17,000 people from 22 different immigrant groups. At the time, CF&I was Colorado's largest single employer _ and was also the biggest landowner and mineral and water rights owner. Founded in 1872, the Colorado Fuel & Iron Corp. controlled 65 different mining, smelting, coking, milling and steel manufacturing operations with a reach than ran to mines in Wyoming and northern New Mexico. It had its own stores, schools and hospitals and printed its own money _ or "scrip." But whipsawed by cheaper foreign steel and the inefficiencies of a turn-of-the-century plant, CF&I declined in the 1960s and was acquired by the Crane Corp., which sold off most of CF&I's assets and unloaded the steel firm itself in 1985. After a bout of bankruptcy, what was left of CF&I was bought by Oregon Steel in March 1993. Despite those changes, the archives still include meetings minutes, stock certificates, photos, employee publications and other items, providing a chronicle of the West. They include the testimony of John D. Rockefeller Jr. before a congressional committee investigating the 1914 Ludlow Massacre, and other significant events in Colorado history. "It may take a couple of years simply to inventory everything and to see what's worth keeping," said Williams of the Pueblo Historical Society.

THE BLACK HAWK WAR: UTAH'S LITTLE-KNOWN CONFLICT WITH THE INDIANS 02/19/99 On the same day the Civil War ended, the Black Hawk War began in central Utah. For eight years, the followers of Antonga _ a charismatic, brilliant Indian leader known as Black Hawk to whites _ lay waste to Mormon settlements and cattle herds with a systematic, widespread campaign of pillaging and rustling. Yet the details of the war and the cost it inflicted on Mormons and Indians alike were almost unknown outside the borders of the Utah Territory. In fact, so great was the Mormons' distrust of outsiders _ in particular the federal government _ that Black Hawk's campaign went largely unnoticed elsewhere until 1872, when federal troops stepped in. Historian John Alton Peterson's "Utah's Black Hawk War," published by the University of Utah Press, is the first book devoted to this peculiar chapter in the history of the pioneer era. Peterson, who teaches in the Mormon educational system at the University of Utah, says a lack of contemporary information about the war impedes discussion even today, keeping it in the margins of traditional histories of Utah's development. "Mormons are among the most historically conscious people on the planet, but we tend to use history to further our proselytizing," Peterson said. "We put forth history that is positive, and this is one of the saddest chapters in our history." The extensive cattle raids and limited guerilla battles that characterized the Black Hawk War were hardly remarkable in the hardscrabble West of the mid-1800s. What made the war unique was the complex political climate in Utah at the time _ and Black Hawk's ability to exploit the Mormons' distrust of the federal government for his own gain. Peterson writes of the "uneasy, dynamic and often times volatile triangle which formed as Mormons, gentiles and Indians maneuvered for position in the territory." Government intimidation and religious persecution had chased the Mormons from the Midwest. In Utah, they hoped to establish a society in which their religion and way of life could flourish out from under the government's thumb. But the Mormons' mutual animus with federal authorities also had repercussions on the territory's native residents. Congress dramatically cut Utah's Indian Office appropriation _ which was used to feed destitute tribes _ after hearing stories of the Mormons' tremendous influence over the Indians. Black Hawk, as Peterson writes, led a combined force of Utes, Navajos and Paiutes "to turn back the tide of white expansion and prevent the extinction of his people." His people lived in poverty despite the humanitarian efforts of the Mormon settlers. "Every Mormon family during that period knew Indians and knew the realities of begging and theft," Peterson said. "It created a situation that neither side was proud of." Brigham Young was almost unique among western leaders of the time in promoting and actively practicing a conciliatory policy toward Indians. He preached a "divine responsibility" to care for the disenfranchised peoples and educate them in Mormon dogma. In fact, Young felt his people's trouble with the Indians was rooted in the Mormons' too-frequent failures to accept their God-given mandate. "I certainly believe that the present affliction, which has come upon us from the Indians, is a consequence of the wickedness which dwells in the hearts of some of our brethren," Young said as Black Hawk's campaign escalated. The settlers and natives of central and southern Utah gradually entered a state of open warfare. Settlers built forts across the territory, abandoned dangerous settlements and formed small militias that chased Black Hawk's men through the wilderness _ almost entirely without success. Black Hawk was supremely organized and an entrepreneur as well as a guerilla leader. The thousands of horses and cattle his men stole from the settlers were marketed in a complex Native American trading system which involved white and Hispanic middlemen on the Old Spanish Trail. On April 9, 1865, Ulysses Grant and Robert E. Lee met at Appomatox Court House in Virginia to broker the conclusion of the Civil War. On the same day in the central Utah town of Manti, a handful of Mormon leaders met with Northern Utes in an attempt to end the destructive conflict. No solution came from the summit, and the Black Hawk War officially began. But in a time when the federal government was quick to end such conflicts with a military presence, Black Hawk astutely guessed the Mormons would refuse to partner with the government to fight him. Indeed, Young feared if word of the war reached Washington, anti-Mormon interests there would use it as an excuse to order federal troops to Utah. So Young employed every resource in his considerable power to minimize reports of the war and its effects. "Pursuing a policy of military self-sufficiency in Indian matters ... Mormon Utah repressed comprehensive newspaper reports of the fighting and carefully concealed information from unsympathetic federal officials," Peterson writes. Col. Patrick Connor, the leader of a federal force assigned to watch over the territory, knew of Black Hawk's exploits but simply chose to ignore them. While livestock was the raiders' primary object, at least 70 whites and perhaps twice as many Indians were killed as the campaign raged on. After years of success, Black Hawk ended his own active involvement in the raids in 1867, and a treaty was signed the next year. But the campaign continued sporadically until 1872, when the federal government was forced by a different Indian revolt to intervene in Utah. "It was only Brigham Young's peace policy, and his related strategy of keeping federal soldiers out of the conflict, that ever allowed such a war as Black Hawk's to occur in the first place," Peterson writes. "It can be argued that Young's policies ... actually contributed to the cause of the war and worked to protract it." Peterson was drawn to his obscure subject from a lifelong interest in Native American-Mormon relations. His Mormon ancestors were sent by Young to be missionaries to Arizona Indians in the 1870s, and his lineage also includes Warren Snow, Young's main implementer of Indian policy. When he began researching the topic for postgraduate work at Arizona State University, he was amazed and intrigued by the lack of documentation from such a pivotal event in Utah history. "What it presented was a field ripe for harvest," he said. Partisan approaches to the war appear in early Mormon histories, but the topic has been almost ignored by later historians. "When people asked me what I was working on, I'd tell them, and hardly anybody knew what I was talking about, even among some scholars," he said. "This is just a huge part of the state's history, and it's an exciting thing to bring it out." Understanding the Black Hawk War's causes and results carries added importance in Utah with the state under the world's microscope for the 2002 Winter Games, Peterson said. "This subject has huge relevance for Utah because we're opening our doors to the world and coming out of our cloister," he said. "(The war) helps us understand how Utah deals with different cultures (and) deals with race issues. ... Our roots are here."

INDIAN NATION OPPOSES TELESCOPE AS TRESPASSING ON SACRED SITE 02/19/99 The Tohono O'odham Nation wants the U.S. Forest Service to block a planned Mount Hopkins telescope on religious grounds. A spokesman for the service said the request will be considered. Tribal Chairman Edward D. Manuel told the service by letter that the Smithsonian Institution telescope array would interfere with a sweat lodge operated by Cayce Boone in the Santa Rita Mountains south of Tucson. Members of the Tohono O'odham Nation use the lodge Boone operates under a special-use permit issued by the Forest Service, Manuel said. Boone, a Navajo who founded a Tucson-based organization called To All Our Relations that seeks to "revitalize indigenous culture and to protect the Earth," has operated the ceremonial lodge in Montosa Canyon for about nine years, Manuel said. Word of the Feb. 3 request surfaced as telescope planners prepared to seek federal and other funding, including money from Boston University. The canyon is the preferred site for the proposed Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System, known as VERITAS, that would be the most powerful of its kind and would complement Earth-orbiting gamma ray observatories. The $16 million array would use seven giant dish-shaped reflectors to study high-energy gamma rays emitted by quasars, supernovae and other powerful celestial objects. Each of the mirror-like reflectors would be 34 feet in diameter. Six would be situated at the corners of a hexagon measuring 280 feet on a side, and the seventh would be in the center of the hexagon. Trevor Weekes, senior astrophysicist at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on the Mount Hopkins summit, said Thursday a formal funding request is to be presented to the Energy Department next week for 50 percent of the money needed. Mount Hopkins is about 35 miles south of Tucson. Those planning the telescope said the Montosa Canyon site was selected because it is large and flat enough to accommodate the array, and is shielded from city lights. Weekes said two other proposed sites were rejected, one as too small, the other as insufficiently shielded from lights. If the canyon site is ruled out, "we would probably have to look for a site outside the area. It (the telescope) probably wouldn't go in Southern Arizona," Weekes said. Weekes said the site is about one-quarter mile from the sweat lodge, The dishes the access road would not be visible from the sweat lodge, he said. "We certainly want to minimize any disturbance to the sweat lodge," Weekes said, but he added that the sweat lodge opened along after a road to the mountaintop observatory was built. The Forest Service is preparing an environmental assessment of the Smithsonian's proposal, and the Tohono O'odham concerns will be addressed, said Jim McDonald, land management planning specialist for the Coronado National Forest. The Smithsonian is to provide 40 percent. Besides Boston University, Purdue University, Iowa State University, the University of Chicago, the University of Utah and three British universities are to provide the rest. If funds are approved, construction could begin in October, Weekes said. Miami-Dade County commissioners voted Thursday to preserve a centuries-old circle carved in stone from a developer's bulldozer. "Cruisin' the Fossil Freeway," opened at the Denver Museum of Natural History. The preserved brain of Ishi has been found in a Smithsonian Institution warehouse in Maryland more than eight decades after it vanished. "To put Ishi back together, to get his remains back will be something that people will feel good about. It will give us a sense of healing, a sense of control." The seventh annual South Texas Ranching Heritage Festival celebrates what is really the home of the American Cowboy, South Texas, where two different ranching cultures, Anglo and Mexican, blended. Visitors identify with Arizona as one of the last states, the last frontiers, where you could really find cowboys and Indians. Because of such competing interests at Spur Cross, the land has been chosen for a panel discussion titled "Spur Cross: Disparate Views on Land Value." Construction has stirred deep emotions about saving the environment and honoring the Hopis' cultural ties to the land. Three years ago, Hopi Chairman Ferrell Secakuku asked that the land be spared from development. "The site is so unique in terms of the history of Hopi ancestors that we believe it should be preserved forever," he said. The Town Council has approved an ordinance that would raise the town's sales tax by half a cent, with the funds benefiting the preservation of Spur Cross Ranch. When it came to fighting, the little navy of the Republic of Texas (1836-1846) victoriously fought off dictator Santa Anna's fleet. The Society for Commercial Archaeology "the oldest national organization devoted to the artifacts, structures, signs and symbols of the 20th-century commercial landscape." In rural New York, the stone walls artifacts of early America are threatened by development. Almost 40 teachers and a handful of other locals will explore the diverse elements of Nevada's unique history as they hop on a bus for a daylong tour of the valley's heritage hot spots. The group is the first to participate in the Nevada Humanities Committee's new Magical Cultural Tour. The tour is part of the committee's Nevada for Newcomers initiative to introduce newcomers to the culture and society of Las Vegas.,2107,20522-33652-243524-0,00.html The National Park Service is working with tribal advisers to pinpoint the exact site of the Sand Creek Massacre so it can be nominated as a national park. The agency is using high-tech tools, aerial photographs and oral histories of the tribes. Dubbed an expensive hoax by National Park archeologists, the park does not know if any of the artifacts will go on display. Which of All the Pasts to Preserve? HISTORY, in Gettysburg, usually refers to the first three days of July 1863, when the bloodiest battle ever fought on American soil was waged here. It almost never means the 1960's or the culture of tourism and automobiles. Still, some architects and historians are engaged in a new battle to save Cyclorama Center at Gettysburg National Military Park, designed by the distinguished modernist architect Richard Neutra in 1959 and completed in 1961. In a last-ditch effort to stop the Asian Art Museum from significantly altering landmarked details of the Old Main Library, an organization devoted to the preservation of historic architecture has sued The City in San Francisco Superior Court. The project raises interesting questions about how to communicate with humans of the distant future. Physicist Gregory Benford draws upon his experience in several projects aimed at communicating across vast chasms of time and space. You really can't rely on historical perspective as the ultimate truth. In the end, we are largely dependent on the perspective of who it is that is relating history to us. And to the time. And to the place.,1249,30012402,00.html? Tribes don't have enough qualified people to perform sweat lodge ceremonies. First Americans Mortgage Corp. will expand Native American loan production by utilizing the Internet. The proposal targets the Urban Indian population in 10 major metropolitan areas. FAMC proposes to reach out to the more than 70,000 Native American households located in these cities by placing computers with Internet access into each of the city's Indian Centers.

OMB Circular A-110 For anthropology this could include any "raw" data, for example ethnographic field notes, archaeological maps, tape recordings, film and maybe even lists of informants. This would have a chilling effect on anthropological research. The current version of Circular A-110 states that the federal government, "unless waived by the federal awarding agency," has the right to "obtain, reproduce, publish or otherwise use the data first produced under an award" and to "authorize others to receive, reproduce, publish, or otherwise use such data for federal purposes." If possible, please send a copy of your comment to OMB to AAA, Department of Government Relations, 4350 N Fairfax Dr, Suite 640, Arlington, VA 22203-1620. For more information, contact Peggy Overbey, Director of Government Relations, AAA at: