CONSTRUCTION UNEARTHS EARLY RAILROAD RELICS 02/11/99 A construction crew has unearthed relics of Santa Fe's railroading past. A crew doing site work for a new bank uncovered a 70-foot diameter stone circular wall that once housed a turntable for steam engines on the narrow-gauge Denver & Rio Grande Railroad. Inside the walls is what resembles a circular track, with stone rectangles that look almost like railroad ties. In the center is a cement block with anchor bolts _ part of the mechanism supporting the turntable, archaeologist Roger Moore of Aztec said. The turntable was used to switch the direction of train engines and to direct the engines into a nearby roundhouse, where mechanics could work on and repair engines. "This is the only narrow-gauge turntables we've been able to find in this part of New Mexico," Moore said. Since the find, the bank project's architect, Jon Dick, has suggested the planned pueblo architectural design no longer seemed appropriate. He wrote the City Council that the firm now wants to design the building with more railroad elements. The council has not made a decision. The old "Chili Line," as the railroad was known, was the only narrow-gauge spur ever to come to Santa Fe, Moore said. The turntable structure was built in about 1909, about the same time as an old train station that now is a restaurant, Moore said. He believes it was covered over about 1920. It was similar to the narrow-gauge turntable still used in Durango, Colo. It was made of wood and some metal, and turned by gangs of men and sometimes teams of horses, Moore said. The building's stonework was cut and set in mortar, said Moore, who speculated it was built by Italian stonemasons whose families came to Santa Fe to build St. Francis Cathedral. A decade-old city ordinance requires archaeological studies of property in historical districts where construction projects are planned.

LAWMAKER SAYS CODE TALKERS SHOULD REPRESENT STATE 02/11/99 A state senator believes the World War II Navajo Code Talkers should represent New Mexico in the National Statuary Hall rather than Pope, who led the 1680 Pueblo Revolt against Spanish rule. The bill by Sen. Rod Adair, R-Roswell, says the statue can be "a composite that represents all the Navajos who served as Code Talkers or may portray ... an individual Navajo Code Talker." Adair's proposal didn't get immediate support from Navajo colleagues. "I'm glad he's recognized the contribution of the Code Talkers," said Rep. Ray Begaye, D-Shiprock. "But while this bill may seem to honor a group, it's really pitting the pueblos against the Navajos. It turns me off." Sen. Leonard Tsosie, D-Crownpoint, called Adair's bill a game. "This is not an honor if it promotes divisiveness," Tsosie said. Historically, Navajos and various pueblos have been at odds. But Begaye said the Navajo Nation and pueblo governments now cooperate on many issues and are working to form stronger relationships. Each state is allowed two statues in the U.S. Capitol hall in Washington. New Mexico already has one, of the late U.S. Sen. Dennis Chavez. The 1997 Legislature chose Pope (pronounced Poh Pay) for the second statue in 1997. Little is known about Pope, who is first mentioned in written history in 1675 as one of several Indians indicted for "sorcery" by the Spanish. He led several Tewa-speaking pueblos after the 1680 revolt but was removed in 1688, four years before the Spanish returned. Adair said the Code Talkers "vastly outstrip Pope in their contribution to the state and in universal appeal and approval among New Mexicans." Begaye contended Pope's poor reputation with the public stems from ignorance. "New Mexico has a very poor written history, especially for a multicultural state," Begaye said. "If there were more study, and more accurate history, people would know what Pope contributed to getting people out of oppression and genocide." Some scholars credit the revolt, which interrupted Spanish colonization for a dozen years, with enabling New Mexico's pueblos to preserve their culture. Unless Adair's bill becomes law, a commission would choose the final design for the life-size Pope statue later this year. Adair instead would like to commemorate the Code Talkers, who played an important military role in the South Pacific by relaying information in a code based on their native Navajo language that the Japanese couldn't understand. Adair, who said he didn't consult with Indian lawmakers before introducing his bill, said he didn't propose it with the intention of creating discord between Indian groups. He called it "just a suggestion." "I'm doing this on behalf of a lot of people who were dissatisfied with the original choice," he said."I told people I would submit an alternative, and I have." The first scientific tests on the Northwest's oldest and most complete skeleton will begin in about two weeks. The tests will try to determine whether the remains are Native American and, if so, whether they are related to a modern tribe. Everything goes -- except for the skeleton that Giotta has been keeping in the basement for nearly 40 years. The skeleton has been identified as that of a Native American man. Now that he's leaving the area for good, he wants to give the man a proper burial and return him to the land. One of the things that's going to grab you as an anthropologist is the fact that there really is an anthropological story here. With Perl there are more ideas from linguistics than is typical in computer science. Jim Beckwourth, a black pioneer, discovered a shortcut in 1850 through the Sierra Nevada for settlers. Bill Pickett the cowboy invented the sport of bulldogging. Mary Fields was a U.S. mail carrier in Cascade, Montontana until she was in her late seventies. Cathy William, a black woman, changed her name to William Cathy to enlist as a Buffalo Soldier in the African American calvary units established after the Civil War and was found out only after she was wounded in battle. Eagle first heard these as a young boy from his grandmother, who was born in Arizona. The debate over How Davy Died speaks volumes about the powerful hold that the Alamo and Texas culture still have on the imaginations of Americans. It also asks a deeper question: to whom does history belong - the victors or the victims, the academics or the amateurs?