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JANKLOW PROPOSES CHANGE IN DEADWOOD'S HISTORIC PRESERVATION FUNDING 01/30/99 Gov. Bill Janklow wants Deadwood to share some of the gambling proceeds the city now gets for historic preservation. He is proposing a bill in the Legislature that would divert some of the money to city, county and school district budgets throughout Lawrence County. South Dakota voters agreed to legalize gambling in Deadwood 10 years ago. But one of the limits was that a share of the proceeds go to preserving the city's history. Since then, the city has received $56 million worth of restoration and preservation, the governor said. That is almost three times what Deadwood boosters originally said they'd need, Janklow told KNBN-TV of Rapid City. He added, ``Isn't it time they shared a little?'' Since Homestake Mining Co. downsized its operations in Lead, the entire northern Black Hills area has suffered economically, the governor said. But Deadwood has continued the thrive, he said. ``The impact of Deadwood gambling isn't just Deadwood, it really permeates throughout the county,'' the governor said.
SILICON VALLEY COMPANY PEEKS UNDER EARTH'S CRUST WITH CUTTING EDGE 01/30/99 New technologies from a small Silicon Valley company are making it possible to peek under the earth's crust and learn how dinosaurs were wiped out, whether mythical pirate ships existed and where earthquake faults lurk. ``With the new instruments and techniques available these days, we're able to get very fine detail about what the subsurface is made of,'' said United States Geological Survey geophysicist Rufus Catchings. Catchings has been using Geometrics Inc.'s newest seismographic instruments to survey an active section of California's San Andreas fault. This will be the first time scientists drill deeply into an active earthquake fault. The hole, planned to be about two miles deep, will hopefully reveal what rock is like when it is squeezed and ready to rumble. In advance of the drilling, Catchings and other geophysicists detonated small explosions on the ground around the fault. As the sound traveled down, the desk-sized monitors tracked the sound waves down and then produced an underground cutaway map. ``That subsurface image is the best in the industry,'' Catchings said. ``We get all kinds of physical parameters of what's associated down there.'' In a mundane office park surrounded by high tech firms in San Jose, Geometrics has quietly spent the past 30 years turning out increasingly sophisticated instruments that reveal the mysteries of the underworld. Although there are smaller businesses dealing with a narrower range of instruments, geophysicists agree that Geometrics has no major competition. With recent computer advances, the market leader is now able to give researchers detailed information and pictures from one inch to three miles under the ground we walk on. ``It's a technology which is always in demand,'' said Geometrics vice president of seismic sales Rob Huggins. ``People are always going to want a better picture of what's under them.'' Last summer, it was a Geometrics instrument that led researchers to a shipwreck off the coast of North Carolina believed to be the pirate Blackbeard's flagship. The tantalizing underwater trail of gold bars, coins, guns and skeletons, along with a perfectly preserved chunk of what appears to be the ship's hull, are now being analyzed by archaeologists. In Mexico, National University researchers are using another Geometrics device to analyze the borders of a crater scientists believe was formed when a gigantic asteroid slammed into the planet 65 million years ago. They'll try to find out whether the impact could have thrown up enough dust to change the weather patterns on earth. The analysis could buttress the widely accepted theory that dinosaurs vanished because of a collision with a huge asteroid or comet. The company's founder, geophysicist Sheldon Breiner, is a Stanford University graduate who used the first cesium magnetometer to discover two colossal Olmec heads carved from basalt and hundreds of artifacts in Mexico in the 1960s. Breiner returned to the region last summer to help archeologists survey an untouched Olmec site known as Laguna de los Cerros. He brought with him a $25,000 Geometrics portable cesium magnetometer, attached to an eight-foot-long pole and connected to a data recorder with a display screen. Walking carefully over the ground, Breiner checked his screens but found no anomalies. He said he'd be back. ``Essentially everything we make is to look under the ground and make someone healthy, wealthy or wise,'' said Geometrics president Steven Duckett. It's a shift for a company that began making instruments aimed almost entirely at discovering oil, gas and other underground minerals. At its peak in the early 1980s, Geometrics' annual revenues reached $20 million as prospectors searched for oil that could bring in $40 a barrel. But as the oil crisis abated and the Cold War came to an end, Geometrics was forced to broaden its products. Today the seismographs, magnetometers and electromagnetic instruments are hand-carried, pulled on bicycles and towed by buggies for archeology, mineral exploration, earthquake research, weapon detection, treasure hunting and even military applications. Prices for the devices range from $5,000 to $500,000. In the past five years, the company brought in steady profits and has seen revenues increase from about $5 million in 1993 to $13 million in 1998. The company was purchased 18 months ago by the $500 million Tokyo-based Oyo Corp., a geological engineering survey and research group. Geometrics executives say they are now mulling a public offering with several other Oyo subsidiaries. ``We're trying to leverage our knowledge base,'' said vice president of magnetometer sales Ross Johnson. ``We're one of the few companies around that can see into the earth.''
GRAND FORKS BASEMENT GOES BACK TO THE '50S 01/30/99 12:31PM If you find yourself in the basement of Brenda and Steve Johnson's home, you also may find yourself singing Ronnie Milsap's line, ``lost in the '50s tonight.'' Because you will be. Steve and Brenda have furnished their basement with things from the 1950s. ``I have 500 items in this room,'' Steve said. ``I counted because I was curious. Something about this appeals to me. I like the character, the pink and turquoise. There's just something about the look of the things that came from that era.'' There are the pink and turquoise walls, and a black-and-white checkerboard floor on half of the large open area. That's for dancing. Then, there's the black-flecked carpet on the other half that adds to the authenticity of it all. Around the room hang pink and black plaster ballet dancer wall pockets, brown and white mosaic ceramic dancers, black and gold plaster horse head plaques, African bust pictures, beige harlequin plaques, chartreuse and black harlequins in black wire shadowboxes. And remember blond furniture? There are several pieces, including an end table that holds a black ceramic lamp with an orange shade. And a round table with both a chartreuse, polka-dot lamp and an Aladdin lamp. Brenda remembers the blond furniture her mother bought in 1954. ``By 1960, she hated it and replaced it,'' Brenda said. ``I'd love to have all that now.'' Standing ready are divided ceramic dishes ready for snacks and butterfly chairs to sit on if your feet tire. Looking around more, there are black wire stands holding miscellaneous aluminum pieces, black swan plaques and poodle dog plaques. If someone had told Brenda that one day she'd collect ceramic animals, ``I'd have been totally repulsed,'' she said. ``Now, a few things have even crept upstairs.`` There's a pink Formica table with lamps, dishes, salad and condiment sets, plus candle holders, aluminum coasters, a double ceramic chafing dish, metal TV trays, and lighters and ashtrays. ``In the '50s, a lot more people smoked,'' Steve said. ``If you go around this room, I'll bet you'll find 50 ashtrays.'' Daughters Shantelle and Rhiannon were teens when the Johnsons built the home nearly a decade ago. The girls wanted a place to take their friends, so Mom and Dad accommodated in a thrifty manner. ``We wanted to do it cheaper,'' Brenda said, ``because we had just built the house.'' Now, Shantelle, 24, and Rhiannon, 21, have left the nest and moved from town. But when they come home, they can't escape. ``Steve makes them go down to see the new things we've gotten,'' Brenda said. ``They didn't like it as well as we did, but they had a lot of parties down here. They sure did use it, so it was worth it.'' Initially, Shantelle and Rhiannon were lukewarm about the decor, Steve said. ``But when your friends think it's cool, it's easier to decide it's cool. But it's not like they are looking forward to inheriting this.'' After painting the walls pink and turquoise, Brenda and Steve began to frequent thrift stores, garage sales and secondhand stores. Soon, collecting decor from this period became an addiction. ``A lot of this cost $1 at garage sales,'' Brenda said. ``It was probably a year before we realized we had the beginning of something unusual.'' The only thing not 50-ish in the whole basement is a black leather couch. ``We've been looking for a 1950s couch,'' Steve said, ``but unfortunately, they are so worn. We need to find someone who has taken good care of their couch and has decided to buy a new one after 30 years.'' Brenda has nudged Steve, wondering how long they'll keep this up. ``That hasn't been resolved,'' she said. Steve's answer? ``Forever, or until we get too old to shop.'' The Johnsons came to Grand Forks Air Force Base 20 years ago. The high school sweethearts grew up in Salina, Kan. Now retired from the Air Force, Steve is executive director of Grand Forks International Airport Mark Andrews Site. Brenda is finishing a master's degree in sociology at the University of North Dakota. Sometimes, to get away from the real world, Steve goes downstairs ``just to turn all the lamps on for an hour and soak it up,'' he says. Kiwi, the couple's Siamese feline, tags along to wander among the maze of collectibles on the shelves. She's careful not to knock anything off. No doubt you're wondering, ``Who's the lucky one? Who's job is it to dust all this?'' ``It's mine,'' Steve says sheepishly. ``It's the price I pay.'' Even though it's a two-hour task, Brenda wants no one feeling sorry for Steve. Dusting isn't a daily, weekly, or even a monthly chore. ``We're talking twice a year,'' she said.
SMITHSONIAN COLLECTED 325,000 ITEMS, INCLUDING BLOND RHINOCEROS 01/29/99 06:29PM WASHINGTON (AP) _ Last year brought 325,000 new items to the Smithsonian Institution's 16 museums, including 13,441 adult mosquitoes, two barber poles and a Stradivarius cello. The Smithsonian, sometimes called the nation's attic, reported in September that up to the beginning of 1998 it had acquired 141,149,152 items _ more or less _ in over 150 years of its history. ``That doesn't include every last bug in every jar,'' noted Mary Combs, the employee in charge of counting. The mosquitoes in the latest update came from the Lloyd E. Rozeboom Mosquito Collection at the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health. They went to the Museum of Natural History. The Smithsonian also got 3,370 insects collected in Burma and 413 wasps from around the world. In addition to the cello, the Museum of American History won the red, white and blue barber poles, made by a company in St. Paul, Minn., which claims to be the only commercial manufacturer in the western hemisphere. With the cello were two violins and a viola, also made by Antonio Stradivari in Cremona, Italy, 300 years ago. Mohan, a 29-year-old greater one-horned Asian rhinoceros, came from a zoo in Miami to the National Zoo, also part of the Smithsonian. ``Mohan is easily distinguished from Mechi, the zoo's 12-year-old female rhino, by the blond hair lining his ears,'' the Smithsonian announced.
COLLECTOR HOPES TO "ROCK" GEOLOGICAL WORLD 01/27/99 When Robert Colburn was a child collecting and trading rocks with his friends, he had no idea he would one day try to revolutionize the geology world. But today, at the age of 62, he hopes to do just that with his new book, ``The Formation of Thundereggs (Lithophysae).'' ``When this book hits the universities, there's going to be a lot of mad geologists around,'' Colburn said. Colburn's book, 18 months in the making, offers a new explanation for the formation of rocks called thundereggs _ agate-filled nodules and crystallized geodes found in the western part of the United States. He believes the development of thundereggs began as lava flow 20 million to 40 million years ago _ a common theory. But unlike others, Colburn suggests the thundereggs did not stop forming until the Ice Age, one to two million years ago. Co-owner of the Geolapidary Museum and Rock Shop outside Rock Hound Park a dozen miles southeast of Deming, Colburn said he not only wrote his book to present his theory to geologists, but to provide a guide for rock collectors as well. His research will be available on CD-ROM next month, he said. The published version will come out next year. It will list the locations of 75 thunderegg deposits throughout the western United States. Colburn, who has no college degree, came up with his theory of thunderegg formation 35 years ago. ``Other theories continued to be published that were totally unacceptable,'' he said. ``They failed to account for all the processes involved.'' Colburn said he is not attacking geologists, but only offering ideas to be tested. ``I don't have the scanning electron microscopes and other exotic equipment to test these theories,'' he said. So if it turns out his theory is proven to be incorrect, he won't be disappointed. ``Even if everything in this book is proven wrong, I will consider it a success because we have come closer to the truth,'' he said. Previous research suggested thundereggs formed immediately in the molten state and the way they were formed is ``how we find them today.'' Colburn said he believes it took at least 18 million years for thundereggs to form. ``The first thing that came to mind when I read the article was that I had found calcite deposits in a lot of them,'' he said. ``Calcite cannot form in a lava flow. They form long after when cold water dissolves silica and other minerals and deposits them in the cavity.'' That is when Colburn began to thoroughly research the formation of thundereggs. He embarked on a tour of universities that included the University of California at Berkeley, Arizona State University at Tempe, Nevada School of Mines, the University of Oregon and others. He tracked down a book written by Norman Bowen and immediately realized Bowen was the source of all the published theories. Bowen ``is to geology what Einstein is to physics,'' but his theories were flawed, Colburn said. Colburn said he discovered that Bowen came up with his theory in the 1920s at Princeton by studying samples of small spherulites that had been sent to him. He had never seen a great big thunderegg, Colburn said. Bowen ``was never in the field like I have been,'' he said. ``Ninety percent of thundereggs in the world are found west of the Rocky Mountains and the Rio Grande River.''
WISCONSIN NATIVE RESEARCH 01/27/99 Amazing discoveries continue to appear at the Gottschall site, as Beloit College archaeological professor Bob Salzer leads expeditions under the western Wisconsin rock overhang each summer. And rock drawings, pottery and other items in the cavern are validating Ho Chunk Indian legends and beliefs, Salzer said. The professor said he expects the dig to lead him to ``nothing less than the entrance into the underworld.'' A recent find was the remains of a stack of rolled deer hide. One Native American winter feast ritual, Salzer said, included painting pictures of deities on specially finished deer hides, as offerings to the deities. While the ``scrolls'' are decomposed, ``you could see something was there,'' Salzer said. Salzer has contacted the Smithsonian Museum and sparked an international hunt to find an expert who knows how to reveal the art work on the material, which dates between 500 and 600 A.D. ``This is going to take a worldwide search,'' he said. Salzer contends the Gottschall site, on rural land west of Madison, is the premier archaeological spot in the U.S., for a range of reasons. One reason is that excavators found the image of a head, carved in sandstone and also painted, dating to about 1,050 A.D. The carving features eyes with pupils, vertical lines painted on the face, red coloring in the mouth and a circle and dot on the chin. ``It's the first of its kind,'' Salzer said, adding he expects to find more carved heads, perhaps from wood, as the excavation continues. A clan of Ho Chunk still paint a circle with a dot on the chin of their dead, he said. Another factor that makes the site spectacular to the archaeological world, said Salzer, is fires in the cavern over the centuries allow researchers to date artifacts using radiocarbon technology _ showing rituals were performed in the cavern between 1,500 B.C. and 1,400 A.D. Salzer contends the people who used the site were the ancestors of the Ho Chunk's thunderbird clan. He believes the cavern became an ancestor memorial. And because the site was used by Native Americans for centuries, as excavators carefully dig down, they unearth items showing how rituals were performed through the ages. While the relatively modern findings are too complex to fully understand, the older artifacts show more simple forms of the customs, that Salzer said he more readily comprehends. The site and the Gottschall rock drawings were discovered in 1974, by an 11-year-old boy adventuring in the countryside with a flashlight. It's named for the landowner. Salzer first saw the drawings in 1978 and began working excavating in 1984, he said, adding it took years to clear his schedule and gather funding and workers. Volunteer workers have headed to the site each summer, carefully ``digging'' into the sediment with brushes, advancing by centimeters. ``I'm not going to be the one that screws up North America's most important archaeological site,'' he said. Salzer is currently on a four-month sabbatical, taken in order to complete reports on Gottschall findings. In May he will lead a tour of the cavern for the International Federation of Rock Art organization. Excavators include college students and volunteers who pay to work on the site. They have comprised a wide-ranging group, including librarians, construction workers, mechanics, a retired doctor and a dentist. Salzer estimates the excavation will continue through 2013. The rock drawings from 850 A.D. of people, a thunderbird and a turtle match Ho Chunk legend recorded in the early 1900s, he said, depicting an Indian hero named Red Horn. According to the legend, said Salzer, the Ho Chunk people were being killed on a mass scale by giant strangers that had moved into the area. Red Horn held a series of sports competitions with the strangers, allowing the victors to kill the opponents. While the Ho Chunk won most of the meets, they lost a wrestling match and Red Horn was killed. His sons later snuck into the strangers' camp and found the bones of their clan members. They brought them home and the bones magically reassembled themselves and Red Horn came back to life. Of note, said Salzer, is that people very different from the Ho Chunk, who lived in wooden forts, settled in Wisconsin. One remaining fort can be found at Aztalan State Park, near Watertown. At Aztalan, archaeologists found the people had thrown human bones in their garbage areas. Arrowheads and knives were embedded in some bones and skulls, said Salzer. Bones were broken open and marrow scraped out, like other people might do with deer bones. ``The people at Aztalan were eating their neighbors,'' he said. ``The paintings may actually be recording a historic event.'' After residing for centuries in southern Wisconsin, ``the ancestors of the Ho Chunk moved north, to get out of this place.'' ``What we've done is confirm their traditions,'' Salzer said. At least some Ho Chunk members continue to monitor Gottschall findings, helping Salzer reach the conclusion that the dig will lead to the entrance of the underworld, where beasts reside. ``The Gottschall site is not a shelter. In fact there is a hole and we're gradually digging toward that hole,'' he said. ``We have reason to believe that there's something special about that hole. ``It is quite likely that we're going to find offerings. Native Americans do not know the consequences of reaching the entrance. ``And they're perfectly happy,'' Salzer said, ``to let a white man find out.''