Got CALICHE? http://www.swanet.org/caliche.html

SCIENTISTS REWRITE CAVALRY, APACHE FIGHT HISTORY 04/24/99 Neither the Apaches nor the U.S. cavalry wanted the battle, but fight they did. Today, artifacts from the 119-year-old battle between the cavalry, many of them black Buffalo Soldiers, and a band of Warm Springs Apaches led by Victorio are telling the story with an accuracy never before possible. Archaeologists worked for a decade on the Hembrillo battlefield, a 900-acre site near Victorio Peak at the western edge of the Army's restricted White Sands Missile Range. They finished late last year. Previous accounts of the battle by white reinforcements portrayed the black soldiers as not being good fighters. Evidence uncovered by archaeologists shows otherwise. On Saturday, White Sands officials, Mescalero Apaches and members of a local Buffalo Soldier group plan to unveil an interpretive sign at the site, giving the history of the April 6-7, 1880, battle. The site will remain closed to the public, but historical groups will be able to arrange weekend tours with White Sands officials, range spokesman Jim Eckles said. Archaeologists used forensics to tell which of the more than 800 rifle and pistol cartridges at the site came from any one gun. From that, they followed the movements of individual soldiers and Apaches, said Karl Laumbach, an archaeologist with Human Research Systems of Las Cruces. The information, now in a computer, shows two outmanned Buffalo Soldier companies were pinned on a ridge for an entire night until the arrival of reinforcements the next morning, forcing the Apaches into a fighting retreat. The battle had its origins in the U.S. Cavalry's reluctant pursuit of Victorio beginning in 1879. The U.S. government had promised Victorio land in Ojo Caliente, west of Socorro, but he took up arms when he was told to move with other Apaches to Arizona. Col. Edward Hatch of Maine, a Civil War veteran, led 500 to 600 cavalrymen into the San Andres Mountains to hunt Victorio. Hatch opposed fighting Victorio and thought the government should give him what he wanted. In April 1880, Victorio and 150 Warm Springs and Mescalero Apache warriors, with several hundred women and children, had gathered in the San Andres. "None of them wanted to be there," Laumbach said. "Both sides were pushed into it by their uniforms and the culture they were from, by people who didn't understand the situation in Washington." Second Lieutenant Walter Finley, originally of Philadelphia, wrote his mother from New Mexico: "It is the old story, unjust treatment of the Indians by the government, treaties broken, promises violated and the Indians moved from one reservation to another against their will, until finally they break out and go on the warpath, and the Army is called in to kill them. "It is hard to fight against and shoot down men when you know they are in the right and are really doing what our fathers did in the revolution, fighting for their country." Evidence uncovered by archaeologists, along with historical documents, produce this account: As Hatch entered the San Andres, he split his forces three ways to attack the Apaches from the east, west and southwest. Hatch's eastern force _ four companies from the 9th Cavalry Regiment, a Buffalo Soldier unit under white officers led by Capt. Henry Carroll _ moved too quickly. On April 5, one of Carroll's scouts encountered Victorio's force before the rest of Hatch's units could arrive. Carroll split his forces, taking two companies of about 70 men into the Hembrillo Basin toward Victorio and leaving two in reserve with orders to follow. That evening, Victorio attacked. Carroll took up a position on a low ridge, with Apaches shooting from several sides. Sometime during the night, Carroll led a force down to get water, but the Apaches found them and attacked, wounding Carroll and several others. Two enlisted men, Issac James and William Saunders, died later of their wounds, the only U.S. soldiers killed in the conflict. Reinforcements, including elements of Arizona's all-white 6th Cavalry Regiment, arrived in the morning. Their writings, previously the only accounts of the battle, belittled the black troopers and credited themselves with saving the day. "History has always discredited the black troops," Laumbach said. "The story we have now shows they performed vigorously and well and intelligently in terms of their defense, holding together against the odds. It adds to the long list of credit now being given to Buffalo Soldiers in terms of their capability." Victorio, outnumbered 2-to-1, ran south, fighting a rear-guard action to give the women and children time to escape. In the end, Victorio got away with some of his warriors and their families, and bolted for Mexico. He tried to re-enter the United States in June 1880. But the Army put garrisons at every spring and water source in the area, and Victorio returned to Mexico. He and what was left of his force were killed by Mexican troops in 1880.

http://cnn.com:80/US/9904/24/killing.the.indian.ap/index.html "Kill the Indian, save the man." That was the motto of Gen. Richard Pratt, the former commander of an Indian POW camp who founded the first off-reservation federal boarding school in 1879. The government bureaucrats and Christian missionaries who molded the boarding school system had the same idea. Indians must be forced to follow "the superior methods of the white man," Wellington Rich, the first superintendent of the Phoenix Indian School, said in 1890. At the very least, U.S. Indian Commissioner Thomas Morgan said that year, it was "cheaper to educate Indians than to kill them." A predecessor, Carl Schurz, had done the math, calculating in 1882 that it cost nearly $1 million to kill an Indian in battle, but $1,200 for eight years of schooling.

GALISTEO UNDERGOING HISTORICAL SURVEY 04/23/99 Spanish settlers who arrived in the Galisteo Basin in 1816 began this village whose history is now being surveyed. Subtract the electrical lines, mobile homes, cars, the nearby highway and other products of modern society and the adobe homes, rock walls and ancient farmlands from centuries ago emerge. The state Historic Preservation Division is completing a building survey of Galisteo, about 25 miles south of Santa Fe, to document historical resources. The village was listed in the state Register of Cultural Properties in 1969, but was never surveyed. Nor were the boundaries of the historic part of the village determined. Documentation is required to preserve the historical character as road improvements are planned, said historian David Kammer, who was hired by the state on a $7,000, six-month contract in September. "If there is going to be any public money spent, they would not be able to move or modify the (historical areas) without some consultation from the state," he said. Santa Fe County Road 42, a dirt road connecting Galisteo to Madrid, will be paved this year. State officials are waiting for an archaeological survey before the work can be done. The study will allow state officials to determine the boundaries of the village's historic areas, including 472 acres, a church dating to 1882, two cemeteries, two bridges, farmland and more than 50 buildings. "That is what Galisteo is all about. It's not known for its artists and movies; it's known for its rich culture and history," said Maria Padilla, a descendant of one of the original settlement families. The study also will determine which landowners are eligible for state tax credits as incentives to preserve historical sites and buildings in the village of about 250 people. Galisteo was established about 1795 when a small military post was built to protect residents from raiding tribes. While Spanish immigrants did not permanently settle in the village until the late 1700s, many Spanish missionaries lived at nearby pueblos. In 1816, the king of Spain gave 17 farmers land in the Galisteo Land Grant.

http://www.jointchiefs.com/gmalone/galrock.html Prehistoric Rock Art of the Galisteo Basin
http://wrri.nmsu.edu/publish/watcon/proc/proc42/white.html Cobble mulch gardens in the Galisteo Basin

http://InsideDenver.com/millennium/descendant.shtml The settlement, established in 1851, was laid out in a traditional way. The town was built like a Mexican village with adobe homes surrounding a plaza. A vega nearby was communal land where each resident could graze two cows, two burros and two horses. Farms were carved from the sage-covered valley the way the Moors did in 7th century Spain, in narrow extenciones that stretched five miles back from Culebra Creek. A five-mile-long irrigation ditch was dug by hand. It allowed the bone-dry valley to bloom. Today, the San Luis People's Ditch is the oldest in the state. Joe's focus is on chicos, a Pueblo Indian corn that's fired in clay ovens.

http://www.puebloharvest.com/ Chicos
http://www.puebloharvest.com/pueblofr.html Calendar of Public Dances and Ceremonies

http://www.post-gazette.com:80/headlines/19990425indianmuseum3.asp The proposed museum's roots go back almost a century. In 1903, wealthy New Yorker George Gustav Heye purchased a deerskin shirt from a Navajo woman in Kingman, Ariz., and began a lifelong obsession with collecting American Indian artifacts. Over the next five decades, Heye amassed 4 million objects of Indian life and culture, from common dishware to dazzling handcrafted jewelry, collected from native peoples all over the western hemisphere. To showcase his treasured collection, Heye founded his own museum in upper Manhattan in 1922. Over the years, the objects gathered dust in the old-fashioned, poorly visited museum or were stored on hundreds of metal shelves in a damp, crowded warehouse in the Bronx. Several years ago, Heye's collection, pared to 1 million objects but still considered the world's most comprehensive compilation of Native American materials, was transferred to the Smithsonian Institution.

http://www.dallasnews.com/texas-southwest-nf/tsw608.htm American history has been depicted as always moving east to west. Mr. Rodriguez, a California native, disagrees with this accepted historical pattern and projects that in the near future, American history will turn to a south-to-north path, and Texas, not just New York, Washington, D.C., or Los Angeles, will provide future national history's starting point.

http://www.desnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,80000857,00.html? Spring City is not unlike other Utah towns. The difference is the unique status of Spring City (the entire town was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980) means that opinions and attitudes here get amplified and can be felt all over the state. It's one of the most interesting towns in Utah, with the wealth of historic buildings and the fact it still retains a real rural feel from the 1940s. So however the debate over Main Street goes - however the conflicts are resolved in the future - many will be keeping an eye on the town. For what happens to Spring City may well be a barometer for what will one day happen to us all.

http://www.usnews.com:80/usnews/issue/990503/ainu.htm Anthropology began with inquisitive Westerners gawking at people whose civilizations they considered outlandish, and many natural history museums still treat the study of other cultures as an adventure into the exotic. Whether celebrated as "noble savages" or belittled as "backward primitives," the people whose lives are put on display often remain enigmatically mute. A landmark exhibition opening at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History this week aims to give a voice to one such society: the aboriginal Ainu of northern Japan. The treatment of the Ainu by mainstream Japanese society has close parallels with that of the original inhabitants of the United States. Both groups were removed from their ancestral lands by acts of government, both have faced overwhelming pressure to assimilate, and both suffer continuing ethnic discrimination. Chisato Dubreuil, co-curator of the exhibition, notes that Japanese children still taunt Ainu classmates by calling them "Inu" - Japanese for dog. Dubreuil (herself of Ainu ancestry) and her husband, David, (an American Indian of Mohawk and Huron descent) say that this shared experience gives the Ainu show a special relevance in the United States.