OLD LOCOMOTIVE PASSES BOILER TEST AFTER DECADES OF RETIREMENT 04/18/99 Locomotive No. 169's boiler, cold and dry for nearly 60 years, was topped off, fired up and passed its first big test in clearing the way for the 116-year-old engine to hit the rails again. One big hitch is the $200,000-$500,000 it will take to restore the old Denver & Rio Grande Railroad locomotive to operating condition. If the fundraising and grant effort is successful, community officials hope to operate a "tourist" railroad around the San Luis Valley from Alamosa south to Antonito. Future plans also call for running it west to South Fork and north up to Creede as it did during the last century. The big test came Saturday. The Friends of No. 169 filled the locomotive's several-thousand gallon boiler with water and heated it up with a propane burner. Then they ran the boiler's pressure up to 200 pounds per square inch and held it there for nearly 30 minutes without finding any serious leaks. "We've got a success," said Scott Lindsay, a steam locomotive consultant from Birmingham, Ala., who came in to help with the hydrostatic test. The boiler had not been fired up since it was retired after appearing at the 1939-49 World's Fair in New York City. After that, it was brought to Alamosa and put on static display by the Alamosa Chamber of Commerce office. "I'm real happy. I'm real excited," said Alamosa chamber Director Melody Johnson, who heads up the restoration effort. Now that they are sure No. 169 can actually function they will embark on a major fundraiser, she said.

NATIVE AMERICAN HOSTS INTERACTIVE PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN 04/18/99 "When those people from that place called Spain-Europe got here, they tied a pretty piece of cloth to a stick and stuck it in the ground," said Uncle Larry to his nieces and nephews sitting on the floor in front of him. Uncle Larry was wearing a canvas shirt and trousers with a brightly colored scarf tied turban-style around his head, a style modeled after the fashion of many 19th century Native Americans. "Then they said some words, and now, come to find out, they said the land was theirs. They have an idea you can own the land. Isn't that crazy? They think you can own Mother Earth," he told his audience. The scene is set in the mid-1800s, part of a living history presentation created by Uncle Larry's alter ego, Larry Richard, curator of the Mississippi Valley Museum at Acadian Village. Like his character, Richard is well-versed in his Native American heritage. He is a member of the Abenaki and Choctaw tribes. The premise of the re-enactment is one based in Native American tradition, where Richard portrays an old Indian uncle, Richard said. "In the old days, after they reached a certain age, the boys would go and live with an uncle and he would teach them all there was to know about survival. The girls were sent to live with an aunt to learn what they needed to know. But things are changing, so I asked all my brothers and sisters to send their children to me so I could prepare them for the future." His nieces and nephews, in this instance, are children from the Acadiana Christian School who are learning about Louisiana history in a rather unique way. Richard has developed four scenes depicting life in four segments of Louisiana society circa 1850. In each scene a child visits, he or she assumes the identity of a child living in that period and is expected to perform their character's chores. Young visitors take on the roles of children living in a small town, students in a 19th century schoolhouse, children in a trapper's rendezvous camp and Native American children. "I want them to feel what it was like to be someone in that period of history," Richard said.

DIG SITE DOES NOT VIOLATE FEDERAL LAWS 04/18/99 There are no federally recognized Indian tribes in Pennsylvania, but Indians have never left. According to the Pennsylvania State Data Center, the states Indian population exceeded 17,000 in 1997. "We're not extinct," said Dale Warner of Springville, whose Indian name is Joseph Longfeather. To him, digging up evidence of past Indian life is repugnant. "I just want our people left alone." Leland McGee, chairman of the Maryland Commission on Indian Affairs, said the federally funded bridge replacement project in Wyoming County _ the reason for the current excavation _ must abide by the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, or NAGPRA. The act covers all remains and artifacts on any lands federal, state, tribal or private that receive federal funding, McGee said. "The remains don't have to be human," he stressed. Jamie McIntyre, an archaeologist with the state Department of Transportation, agreed with that the Tunkhannock site could be shut down if it was violating NAGPRA. But she said PennDOT is abiding by the law. NAGPRA requires that various government officials be notified when Indian sites are excavated. Ms. McIntyre said PennDOT is working with the state historic preservation office. The Tunkhannock site is believed to be from an archaic period 6,000 to 8,000 years old. It contains neither human remains nor grave goods, Ms. McIntyre said. If any culturally significant items were uncovered, they would be repatriated immediately to federally recognized Indian tribes, such as the Iroquois Confederacy in New York and the Delaware Nation in Oklahoma, she said. Ms. McIntyre said she could understand Warner's concerns if the Wyoming County site yielded human remains. But she seemed puzzled by the suggestion that artifacts should remain in the ground where no one could learn from or appreciate them.

EXCAVATION SITES YIELDING INDIAN ARTIFACTS NEARLY 5,000 YEARS OLD 04/18/99 Thousands of years ago, Indians sharpened tools and cooked over fires on the banks of Tunkhannock Creek. The proof is buried deep in the soil. Pottery, projectile points and evidence of food storage pits have been unearthed near Hallstead in Susquehanna County. The confluence of the Lackawanna and Susquehanna rivers and the area near the Shickshinny-Mocanaqua bridge, both in Luzerne County, as well as a site in Falls Township in Wyoming County, are full-fledged archaeological digs where a patient person might find Indian artifacts, according to Jamie McIntyre, district archaeologist for the state Department of Transportation. Areas along flood plains are high-probability areas. To Dale Warner, an Iroquois Indian of the Delaware Nation, the very notion of digging up his ancestors' past is disturbing. Warner, who lives in Springville, said he's not trying to cause trouble. He doesn't quibble with archaeologists and anthropologists seeking to learn. "However, they should leave what's there alone. They can't study it and put it back. They have to take it. Its not theirs to have." Warner said Indians should be notified whenever there is an excavation. Warner also appeared before the Wyoming County Commissioners last month to ask that any artifacts remain in this area. The excavation in Tunkhannock Township is in preparation for a federally funded bridge replacement, Ms. McIntyre said. The National Historic and Preservation Act says possible archaeological sites must be examined to see if they are eligible for the National Register. State law says pretty much the same thing. The Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission maintains a list of companies familiar with prehistoric resources. One is Pan Cultural Associates of Spring Brook Township, which is now digging on private property along the banks of the creek. Founded in 1993, Pan Cultural Associates employs eight to 10 people to do the work required by state and federal laws. There is a lot of bridge and road building that requires state and federal permits, co-owner Dawn Griffith said. So far, Pan Cultural Associates has found work in Bradford, Luzerne and Montgomery counties. A spool of traffic unwinds steadily and noisily along Route 6 as Al Pesotine, an archaeologist with Pan Cultural Associates, described the excavation site in March. "There are artifacts in there but they're in a disturbed context," he said, referring to a number of small holes in the ground, away from where he and other archaeologists are concentrating their efforts. "Over here, they're intact on the levee." Pesotine said an excavator was used to rip a seam in the site and to define the strata all at once. The site was laid out in a grid of units 1 meter square, Pesotine said. Archaeologists from Pan Cultural Associates are excavating within the grid. "See that rock in there? That's part of a fire hearth," he said, pointing into a straight-sided hole about four feet deep. The archaeologists found an occupation level at less than 2 feet below the surface. "We just got that feature this morning," Pesotine said, displaying what looks like an arrowhead in a labeled plastic bag. "These usually date around 2,800 B.C. We need to find out what kind of material that was, if it's local material, if it's along the shoreline or they're bringing it in. I have to clean it up, take a good look at it." The trained eye of an archaeologist can tell if rocks have been used as anvil stones or hammer stones. "You have to study them a little bit to see these things on there," Pesotine said. What they're finding buried alongside Tunkhannock Creek defies classification by tribe, according to Pesotine. "We're back so far in time that there's no set tribe associated with these people," he said. "These would be the late archaic people on this particular site." Pesotine said Pan Cultural Associates has collected about 200 bags of rock, artifact and soil samples. He expects to be on-site for another couple of months. Archaeologist Chris Krempasky was working at another hole. Changes in the color and texture of the soil tell him when he has reached another layer, he said. The digging is tough because there are a lot of roots, and chemical processes have solidified the soil into what Krempasky called natural concrete. He pointed to some charred stones and irregularly fractured, almost triangular rock. "We know that that's not a natural occurrence," he said. Krempasky has also bagged stone flakes: residue from the manufacture of stone tools. We can define those chips and we know exactly what they were doing. "Big chips indicate the Indians were making tools. Small chips are evidence of tool sharpening. The size of these castaway pieces of stone gives archaeologists a sense of what was going on here thousands of years ago," Krempasky said. "Usually, if it was a permanent site, you'd find more big flakes. Here, we found a lot of smaller flakes. This points to more of a hunting encampment than it does a permanent village." Ms. McIntyre, the PennDOT archaeologist, said anything taken from the site that is deemed worthy of display would probably be given to the Wyoming County Historical Society. When Pan Cultural Associates is finished, Krempasky said, they will confer with state geologists and archeologists. "We'll all sort of sit down and agree on what we found here. The state will prepare a report, and the Wyoming County Historical Society can have a copy. It's not anything secretive," Krempasky said.

TODAY IN ARIZONA HISTORY Monday, April 19 On this date in 1859, Fort Mojave was established. Tuesday, April 20 On this date in 1825, Charles Poston, "Father of Arizona," was born. In 1927, it celebrated its 50th anniversary with 50,000 celebrants, including Gov. George W.P. Hunt. Hunt first entered Globe in 1881, riding a mule and seeking his fortune. Wednesday, April 21 On this date in 1877, John Clum, with Clay Beauford and his Apache Police Force, arrested Geronimo and 13 other Apache renegades at Ojo Caliente, N.M. On this date in 1904, Edward Tewksbury, the last survivor of the Graham-Tewksbury feud, died. On this date in 1917, an agricultural conference meeting at the University of Arizona was startled when Dr. A.E. Vinson recommended slaughtering 25,000 wild burros and grinding the meat to make bologna. Thursday, April 22 On this date in 1919, the government opened its case in the Phoenix trial of two Cocopah Indians charged with the slaying of their tribal medicine man, who had failed to halt a flu bug. Friday, April 23 On this date in 1850, Yuma Indians attacked the ferry at the Yuma Crossing. Fifteen people were killed and three reached safety on the West Coast. On this date in 1919, U.S. marshals raided two underground stills located in an abandoned mining shaft near Jerome. For almost 50 years in the late 1800s and early 1900s, museums from across the country paid archaeologists to excavate Southwestern Indian burial sites, collecting tens of thousands of human remains and a huge assortment of pottery, crafts and sacred items buried with the bodies. But while most tribes in recent years have been working with museums to get these items returned to their homelands, officials for the Navajo Nation have been taking a cautious position. They're saying that -- at least for now -- they would just as soon allow these items to remain in the museums. The only cultural items the Navajos have been active in bringing home are the medicine bundles that were used by old-time medicine men. The bundles, which contain sacred items like corn pollen and eagle feathers, were used by the medicine men in healing ceremonies and were at one time actively being acquired by museums and private collectors. Clark is trying to meld the simple technologies of ancient Indian watercourses with volunteers and hired hands to assemble 5,200 tiny loose-rock dams at key junctures around a 10,000-acre parcel in the San Pedro watershed. Close inspection reveals the dams are assembled according to a design developed by the Hohokam, pueblo Indians who first farmed this wash 1,000 years ago. [ hmmm... wonder if she is marking the new construction in any way so that these things won't be mistaken for ancient indigenous structures and declared national register eligible by archaeologists in ten years... ] Route 66 has become the property of the world, a growth industry complete with its own magazine and no shortage of worshipers. Beginning at Crookton Road, a 165-mile section of the Mother Road stands ready for all comers. The Historic Route 66 Association of Arizona holds its annual Fun Run from Seligman to Kingman on April 30. When the strangers shimmered into view, wearing uniforms and guns, tribal elders feared the cavalry had finally come to run them off their land. It was 1933. The outsiders were U.S. park rangers. California is the hub of the trend, in large part because it was the hub of the nation's aerospace industry from World War II. Many aviation archaeologists believe in preserving wreck sites as natural memorials and historic monuments. Scavengers trample state and federal laws protecting wreck sites, sometimes even mashing plane parts to increase their value on the black market. While education has led to preservation awareness, only Alaska has legislation with real teeth regarding salvage permits. Enforcement varies among state or national parks and forests. The military itself has no uniform policy. Unlike the Navy, which rigorously guards its plane wreckage, the Air Force has "formally abandoned" the legal rights to all aircraft that crashed before 1961.