DIG UNCOVERS ANCIENT PIT HOUSE 04/17/99 An archaeological crew has been unearthing ancient pit houses, trying to learn about the farmers that once lived in an area now criss-crossed by natural gas pipelines. The crew has been working since March on a site about 4 miles east of here to clear the way for a natural gas pipeline. Archaeologists expect excavation to be complete by the end of next week. Sandals, jewelry, pottery and other artifacts will be sent for analysis, then eventually will end up at a Santa Fe museum. Jerry Fetterman, chief archaeologist for Woods Canyon Archaeological Consultants Inc., said the crew is working to document archaeological sites along the pipeline's path before the Bureau of Land Management approves construction for the 421-mile line to be built this summer from Bloomfield to northern Utah. Ancestors of today's pueblo Indians once grew corn in his valley, and up to 500 people lived in the area, Fetterman said. On Thursday, crew members worked to finish a site where two one-room, well-preserved pit homes were built adjacent to one another. Using small shovels and wide brushes, some workers carefully picked away at the walls and floor of the nearly 1,200-year-old homes. Other crew members used tape measures; one man drew a detailed diagram of the site. The dwellings are called pit homes for their construction style, crew chief Paul Stirniman said. The houses were built underground and inhabitants went in and out through a ladder from the roof, which was at ground level. Wooden posts held up the roof, made of wood and adobe covered with earth. The two pit homes are square, instead of the more common round shape, the archaeologists said. Fetterman estimates the homes were built around A.D. 830. Scientists from the University of Arizona expect to date them to the exact year of construction using still-readable tree circles found in burnt wood. Seven or eight people probably lived in the homes at one time, Fetterman said. He estimated the homes had a relatively short life span of around 15 years. With such cramped quarters, the occupants probably only slept inside when it was cold, Stirniman said. Or they may have used them seasonally, moving to a new location if summer was dry, he said. Next to the two pit houses, the crew uncovered a less advanced dwelling, probably about 3,000 years old, the two archaeologists said.

PREHISTORIC MAMMAL FOSSILS FOUND AT KIRTLAND 04/17/99 The Air Force has uncovered fossils of prehistoric mammals while attempting to bury debris from a construction project at Kirtland Air Force Base. A paleontologist believes the fossils are at least 1 million years old. One of the bones is believed to be from a camel-like animal known as the long-limbed llama, said Gary Morgan, the paleontologist from the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science. Other bones appear to be from a prehistoric dog and an extinct horse, he said. The largest bone is about 8 inches long. ``This is a significant discovery,'' Morgan said Friday in an Air Force news release. Further excavation is warranted, he said, and it shouldn't take more than an additional day to check for more fossils. Work at the site has been halted until officials decide how to proceed. The bones were found April 9 by workers from Kirtland's 377th Air Base Wing Civil Engineer Squadron. The crew was removing earth from a 90-foot-deep pit where they planned to bury construction debris, including concrete reinforcement. Meanwhile, the state Land Office announced Friday that the Museum of Natural History and Science is going to become a permanent repository for fossils located on state trust lands. A memorandum of understanding was signed between Land Commissioner Ray Powell and the museum Friday.

CU ALTERS EXPANSION PLANS FOLLOWING PRESERVATIONISTS' CONCERNS 04/16/99 In an attempt to satisfy preservationists, the University of Colorado has revised plans for an expansion into a neighborhood of early-century homes. Changing the plans will add $21 million to the cost of expanding the campus into the Grandview Terrace area on the north side of University Avenue. The $90 million expansion, to be built over 20 to 25 years, would add research space, classrooms and offices. CU officials said the new plan will preserve the charm of the neighborhood; previous plans were hotly contested by preservationists. The expansion includes renovation of 13 circa-1910 buildings, construction of nine buildings and the removal or demolition of 26 buildings. It also includes 877 parking spaces _ many of them underground _ a pedestrian walkway, and a bridge over 17th Street to connect the area to the main campus. The plan also calls for the School of Journalism to move into the historic Armory Building next spring. The journalism school, currently in Mackey Auditorium, received bad grades from an accrediting group in October for inadequate facilities. University officials say the expansion is critical because CU expects to add 1,800 students over the next 10 years. CU owns all but four properties in the neighborhood, purchased over the past three decades, and has been using several of them for years. Preservation groups such as Historic Boulder Inc. objected to an earlier CU plan, saying that Grandview Terrace represents a nearly intact neighborhood of Craftsman-style homes from the early decades of the century. The Craftsman style, a reaction to the excesses of the Victorian style, stressed architectural simplicity. Called ``Faculty Row,'' homes in the neighborhood once belonged to professors and administrators, as well as grocers, bankers and students. In February, Colorado Preservation Inc. placed the neighborhood on its list of Colorado's Most Endangered Places. CU's revised plan calls for removal of 26 rather than 30 buildings, lower building profiles on street fronts, elimination of an above-ground parking lot and preservation of the original street grid. The four buildings being retained were at the heart of the preservation protests. One is a 1909 bungalow owned by an engineering dean, and the other is a former church built in 1917. The plan will be presented to CU's governing Board of Regents on May 13 and then to a CU-city of Boulder steering committee and to Historic Boulder Inc.

APACHE COUNCIL AGAIN ATTACKS CHAIRMAN STANLEY 04/16/99 The council of the San Carlos Apache Tribe again is attacking long-controversial tribal Chairman Raymond Stanley, who won reinstatement in a tribal vote during a previous attack. This week, the council adopted a resolution condemning Stanley and suspending all of his privileges, including the use of a tribal car and cellular phone. Stanley will continue to draw his $39,000 annual salary. Stanley was reinstated as chairman following an election among tribal members in July and won re-election in his own right in November after having been ousted by the council earlier in 1998. Council members introducing a new resolution against Stanley accuse him of ``conduct and behavior unbecoming an officer of the San Carlos Apache Tribe.'' The resolution blames Stanley for causing disruption among the council members and also claims Stanley has ``downgraded'' the tribe. Details as to how he allegedly did these things weren't available late Friday. In the previous fued, Stanley was accused of misusing tribal money, though Stanley denied any wrongdoing. What began as an anthropology dissertation for Haynes has developed into a fascinating look at San Antonio culture and history as played out in Fiesta. At first glance, the yearlong wrangling over whether to build a memorial to honor New Mexico's first governor, Juan de Onate, appears to be just another exercise in political correctness. The New Mexico dispute over possibly misplaced historical veneration differs from others in immediacy if not intensity. That's because here, it isn't history -- it's personal. The people who fought most vigorously for a monument are direct descendants of Onate and his men. And those who opposed it? They are residents of Acoma Pueblo, the longest continuously inhabited settlement in North America. For them, the stories of Onate and his legendary cruelty are part of an oral tradition still alive in the pueblo's kivas, or ceremonial rooms. Archaeologists digging in the Mall have happened upon the historically tantalizing story of Mary Ann Hall, a determined woman who built and managed one of this city's finest 19th-century bordellos. It is now a grassy stretch of the Mall where the Smithsonian Institution's new National Museum of the American Indian is to be built beginning in September. The Ute infant, cushioned in woven grass and tied in a cradle board with leather thongs, has been dead for almost 150 years. She was once displayed in a plexiglass case in the Delta County Historical Society Museum, but this summer she will ceremonially be given a final resting place in a donated plot at the Delta Municipal Cemetery. The burial of her remains and the bones of an adult male Indian who died near Montrose in the last century marks one of the few success stories in Colorado efforts to repatriate the thousands of remains of Indians stored in museums, universities and land-management agency warehouses. "Anthropology is on trial here, and Native Americans are the jury.'' The theft of artifacts from reservation and federal land is an ongoing crime. Police on Standing Rock, where there are thousands of archaeological sites on land bordering the Missouri River, got dirt under their fingernails Thursday learning how to collect evidence. Thursday's mock crime scene was the backbone of a five-day archaeological resources protection program attended by police, criminal investigators, rangers, archaeologists and federal and Indian cultural resources managers. His research appeared in the December 1998, edition of The Katy Flyer, a publication of the Katy Railroad Historical Society. Texans know the legend: Wily mulatto beauty diverts Mexican dictator Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna in his candy-striped tent. Ragged Texans attack unwary Mexican camp, catching Santa Anna with his pants down. Whooeeee. Was the Yellow Rose a Texas patriot - or a shameless collaborator?