FOREST SERVICE PURCHASE SAVES SEDONA RUINS FROM DEVELOPERS 04/10/99 Kevin Ferguson poked his head out of a 900-year-old Sinaguan Indian ruin, his mouth wide in wonder as he touched the finely hewn stone. "I imagined seeing rock paintings, but nothing like these walls. I'm surprised they're still standing," said the 12-year-old from Hamburg, N.Y., who was exploring the Honanki ruins near Sedona during a weekend family outing. These ruins are the largest and best preserved in Sedona's Red Rock-Secret Mountain Wilderness, and the Forest Service hopes to keep them that way. The Forest Service is taking possession of the nearby 110-acre Cleeves Ranch. It's the first of several old homesteads on 800 acres dotting the southern edge of the wilderness that the federal government wants to spare from development. "Our concern is retaining the overall primitive character _ the Western, open look," said Judy Adams, director of land use for the Coconino's Sedona Ranger District. Without the Forest Service purchase, the Cleeves property was zoned for up to 55 homes. Development of the other private lands in the area would mean hundreds of homes near some of Arizona's most fragile archaeological sites. The move to buy the Cleeves property was applauded by Charlie Ferguson, who took his son Kevin to Honanki instead of the Grand Canyon because of Arizona's recent freak snowstorms. "I like the fact that it's out in the middle of nowhere," he said. "With development and paved roads, there would be quite an impact. This is a part of our heritage. I'm sure people from all over the world come to see this." Elsewhere in the Sedona area, hotels, cabins and campgrounds line Oak Creek. Sedona and the nearby Village of Oak Creek are bursting out with $1 million homes. Even Cathedral Rock, one of the most photographed places in the Southwest, is surrounded by private dwellings. In this area northwest of Sedona, there are a few old ranch houses hidden among the pinyons, junipers and prickly pear cactus at the base of towering patina-washed cliffs. A Forest Service plan for the Sedona region, adopted in June, calls for buying the Cleeves property and other "high priority" private inholdings. The goal is to keep the area's roads as primitive as possible, prevent new trails from being developed, limit commercial tours, and provide full-time guards and educators at key archeological sites. The Forest Service didn't buy the property directly. Instead, it bought the land at market price from The Trust for Public Land, a national, non-profit group that enables such land transfers, often by enabling the sellers to collect tax breaks. Trust officials declined to say how much it paid for the Cleeves property, but it sold it to the Forest Service for $2.3 million. The Forest Service funds for the purchase included $500,000 from the sale of Forest Service land elsewhere in Arizona, and $1.8 million from the federal Land and Water Conservation Fund, derived from a tax on off-shore oil-drilling operations. Sedona District Ranger Ken Anderson said buying the Cleeves property "substantially adds to the protection of this treasured landscape." "Acquiring the Cleeves property _ inherently rich in heritage, scenic, wildlife and recreational values _ is very special," he said. "It's a gem."

ALBUQUERQUE RETURNS ARTIFACTS TO MEXICO 04/10/99 More than 200 pieces of pre-Columbian artifacts stored at the Albuquerque Museum have made their long journey back to their home in Casas Grandes, Mexico. The artifacts were given to the museum in the mid-1970s by private donors. But several years later, officials discussed the possibility of returning the items after meeting with Mexican colleagues during an exhibition on the Mayas, museum director Jim Moore said. The artifacts, which includes pottery, tools and stone jewelry, were never displayed at the Albuquerque Museum because it "didn't have the context for" them, Moore said. Mexican officials said the Casas Grandes museum would be a better place to house the artifacts since that is where they were discovered. The art has already been returned but the announcement wasn't made until Thursday, "If the museum in Casas Grandes ever were to develop, then this is a conversation that we ought to pick up," Moore said. "Over the past few years, they have actually gotten to that point in the plan." Casas Grandes, in the state of Chihuahua, is about 150 miles south of Ciudad Juarez and is the sister city of Albuquerque. Albuquerque Mayor Jim Baca, who announced the return of the items, is in Chihuahua on a mission to promote cultural, sports and educational trade exchanges between the cities.

GILA GRAVESTONE TELLS TALE OF OLD WEST FEUD 04/09/99 The headstone, itself a kind of revenge, was anything but the last word in a dispute between brothers Thomas and William Grudgings and Tom Wood, early settlers on what is now the Gila Wilderness. According to the tombstone, William Grudgings was "waylayed and murdered" by Tom Wood on Oct. 8, 1889. The words in the stone are Thomas Grudgings' indictment of his brother's killer, a man who, years later and far from the Gila country, would extract final revenge for the murder of his son. "Most of whatever else (the early settlers) left is gone," said Bob Schiowitz, U.S. Forest Service archaeologist, referring to the graves, family plots, and the handful of tiny cemeteries scattered across the wilderness. For the most part, Schiowitz said, the old cabins and homesteads, relics from the Gila's era of settlement, have been lost to either fire or decay. "In most instances, (the graves) are about the only record we have of the early miners, trappers and homesteaders that pioneered the Gila," Schiowitz said. Unlike the grave of William Grudgings, wilderness graves are typically marked with mounds of rock or uncarved headstones. A rock mound in the middle of a forest trail marks the grave of Thomas Papineau, killed by Indians during an Apache uprising. John Lilley, who homesteaded Lilley Park, and Thomas Prior, killed about the same time, are buried in marked graves near Clear Creek. William Baxter, also killed by Indians, is buried on White Creek near its confluence with the West Fork of the Gila River. James F. "Bear" Moore, who after being mauled by a bear kept a side of his face turned away from people, is buried in Little Turkey under a mound of stone beside a blazed juniper. Behind the ruins of Trotter homestead on the Middle Fork are three unidentified graves. But it is the message on William Grudgings' tombstone on the West Fork of the Gila River that over the years has piqued the interest of wilderness travelers. The grave is not far from where stood the old Grudgings homestead, destroyed in 1991 by a forest fire. The fire, which started near the cabin site about three-quarters of a mile from the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, rekindled interest in a century-old saga of murder and revenge that started in the Gila and ended, by one account, in a Louisiana bayou years later. Tom Wood's ranch was on the north side of the Middle Fork of the Gila River, several miles from the Grudgings cabin. Like other back-country ranchers and homesteaders, Wood went to Silver City periodically for supplies, usually with his son, Charley. According to an account in the Silver City Enterprise, 15-year-old Charley Wood set out for Silver City on Oct. 5, 1892, with five mules to pick up supplies. On this trip, Tom Wood stayed behind, sending instead Francisco Diaz, who had been helping Wood hew logs for a barn. On their way home from Silver City with the supplies, the two passed by the cabin of the Grudging brothers before making camp along the Zig Zag Trail, leading to the Middle Fork and the Wood homestead. That night, Oct. 10, Diaz and Charley Wood camped not far from what is now known as Grave Canyon. The next morning, the newspaper states, Ed S. Milliken entered the camp and discovered Diaz and young Wood shot to death. A coroner's jury was unable to come up with clues at the murder scene because rain the night of the murder "destroyed all signs and trails." The coroner's report concluded only that young Wood and Diaz had been killed by shots to the head by "an unknown party or parties." Tom Wood buried Diaz near the camp. He buried his son at the ranch on the Middle Fork. "The strangest thing about the mystery," according to an Oct. 21, 1892, report in the Enterprise, "is that nothing was taken from the camp. The guns and ammunition were there and also the supplies and burros." At the time, Wood concluded the murders had been committed by someone with a grudge against Diaz, and that his son had been killed to cover up the crime. Later, he changed his mind. Almost a year after the murders, Wood rode to the town of Cooney in what is now Catron County and confessed he had killed William Grudgings in revenge for the murder of his son. A sheriff's deputy, apparently sympathetic to Wood, was said to have looked the other way while Wood escaped. Accounts of how William Grudgings was killed _ whether ambushed on horseback or when silhouetted in the doorway of his cabin _ vary. One newspaper story has Wood disguised as an Indian. Another version, a taped account of the history of the McKenna Park Ranger District by Ranger Henry Woodrow, is the most colorful and detailed down to the 14 notches on Wood's pistol. Wood reportedly told Woodrow he ambushed the brothers while they were on horseback, and that Thomas Grudgings, matinee cowboy style, slid from the saddle to the offhand side of the ambush, as Wood fired "into the rails." According to Woodrow's account, Wood followed Tom Grudgings to Louisiana and determined that a man matching Grudgings' description would be crossing a river in a canoe the next morning at daybreak. Wood, according to Woodrow, hid in a canebrake near the canoe until he saw a man get into it. When the man spit through a gap in his teeth, as was Grudgings' habit, Wood shot him. Wood later returned to New Mexico, hiding out for two years before showing up in Silver City to stand trial, where he "came clean," according to Woodrow. According to burial records at the Grant County clerk's office, Wood died in 1925 at age 78.,1249,75003300,00.html? Green has been working on placing the Bemis Taylor Chapel on the National Register of Historic Places. If the chapel, possibly the only example of its type of architecture in a church in Colorado, becomes part of the national register, it'll be easier to get grants to pay for restoration of the structure and some of the art inside, including seven santos in the reredos. the Acequia Madre is believed to be its 389th year of delivering water to fields and pastures. Anable sees his biggest hurdle as "overcoming political posturing from local government." But Anable said the department has yet to lay out a clear plan for approving eligible property, with the risk that someone will line up their money and the state won't be ready to sell the land. Archaeological sites, recreational areas, scenic wonders and rich wildlife habitat "will be lost if we continue on the same approach we're on now," argued Jack Fraser of a group called Conservation of State Trust Lands. Despite its unorthodox origins, the $300 million to $500 million Sonoran Desert plan stands as one of the boldest, most ambitious and expensive efforts by any local government in the country to save nature from the bulldozer. The National Trust for Historic Preservation -- the nation's leading private preservation organization -- today named Kathryn ("Kitty") O'Leary Higgins vice president for public policy. The Cultural Property Advisory Committee was created to advise the President on the import of archaeological and ethnological materials into the United States. It consists of eleven private citizens who are experts in archaeology and anthropology; the international sale of cultural property; and who represents the interests of museums and the general public. The Committee renders the expert advice necessary to review requests from other countries seeking United States protection of their archaeological and ethnographic heritage. Historic preservation of buildings means more jobs and more money into the economy. When new structures are built, much of the material, such as steel beams and other large items, comes from out of the county. Local suppliers, however, usually are used for material needed for preserving buildings. Preserving structures also means less construction and demolition debris going into the local landfill. Channel Island Woman's Bones May Rewrite History. A team of scientists says that bones from an ancient woman who lived on the Channel Islands off Ventura County could be the oldest human remains ever found in North America. He discovered more than he bargained for April 1 when he found a burial site of at least two dozen American Indians.,2107,37120-59869-413488-0,00.html The archaeologist placed the remains in plastic bags, along with shreds of wood from the coffin, and a button. Just who was buried in the butterbox on the hill beneath the birch tree? A state archaeological crew found her brittle brown bones lying in repose in her coffin. Now, for the first time in more than 250 years, attention is being paid to her. A team led by an archaeologist from the New York State Museum is teasing out details of her life through the unearthed evidence. Dr. Craig, the state's forensic anthropologist, had been called in. She and a group of University of Kentucky students scoured the roadside and creekbed. About 20 anthropology students from the College of Mount St. Joseph in Delhi joined the forensic anthropologist and sheriff's deputy to scour the area. They focused on a small ditch along Big Jimmy Hill, and by noon, found what they believe to be Mrs. Washer's fibula. Hezekiah Stites was a Minute Man in the American Revolution. Rachel Kibby knew Daniel Boone. But where is Sgt. William Brown, the first man to be awarded a Purple Heart? His grave is now lost in the weeds. The past reeks. A series of history books for kids is spreading that message right up your nose. Oxford University Press, which has published nine "scratch 'n' sniff" volumes under the unlikely imprint of Smelly Old History. "It attracts a lot of kids who don't usually like to read." Artifact find delays project The leaders of a village in Peru's southern Andes Mountains on Friday demanded the return of the "Ice Maiden," the frozen mummy of an Inca girl sacrificed to the gods 500 years ago. "If the mummy were here, we might get some tourists," said Antonio Jimenez, mayor of Cabanaconde, a hamlet of adobe and stone homes where residents lack running water or telephones. Cabanaconde is near the volcano where the mummy was found by U.S. archaeologist Johan Reinhard and his team in 1995.,2107,36774-59227-432278-0,00.html Paleontologist Donald Elvin Savage, an expert on the origin of mammals, died Monday of pancreatic cancer. He was 81. Savage, an expert on the evolution of anthropoid apes, was professor emeritus of paleontology at University of California at Berkeley and former director of the school's Museum of Paleontology. Lucy, Australopithecus afarensis click2send provides nearly instantaneous transfer of electronic documents and other media using standard web browsers. click2send is optimized for Netscape 3.0 or IE 3.02 or later browsers and ISDN or faster connections. The primary features of the click2send service are: It's easy-to-use GUI (Graphical User Interface) for the transfer of files up to 50 MB for a one-to-one or one-to-many distribution of information; Each Digital Safe Deposit Box has a capacity of 120MB; and Unless otherwise specified, each file will automatically have a maximum storage life of 10 days on the click2send system. Cultural anthropologists take note of this bombastic piece on electronic communications and organizations.