Message #326:
From: AzTeC SW Archaeology SIG
To:   "'Matthias Giessler'" 
Subject: Electronic Efforts / CRM Update
Date: Mon, 18 Aug 1997 21:24:26 -0700


From:	 Brian Kenny

I made two brief presentations at the 1997 Pecos Conference.  For those
unable to attend, I replicate my presentations below.

--------------------

Spider Woman Taught Us How To Weave: Southwestern Archaeology On The WWW.
Comments Presented at the 1997 Pecos Conference, Chaco National Historic
Park, New Mexico by Brian Kenny, Southwestern Archaeology [ SWA ] Web Site.

The story of Spider Woman teaching the Navajo to weave provides a moral
tale and rationale for bringing together lives into a society and linking
the society and its material culture in an egalitarian fashion.  For the
Navajo, the story is crucial. 

For an archaeologist at Pecos Conference, the story is merely a pretext to
talk about weaving together lives with material culture of a different
sort.  I want to discuss the material culture of the world wide web and the
weaving of electrons.

Why?  For archaeologists and others, the WWW has become a medium that has
potential to reduce the costs of sharing information.  But, there is more...

The folks in Sunnyvale California, the ones who bring us Netscape and other
Internet-related software, have their own moral tale to share with us.  In
their view, the material culture they offer supports another moral
imperative -- not capitalism, which literally means a political system
where he who owns the tools rules the day -- but free enterprise, that is,
a system which allows the freedom to pursue rational self interests.

For the archaeologist or anthropologist, then, the Internet is interesting
for more than just an opportunity to reduce costs associated with the
transmittal and sharing of field data and social information.

The Internet is an appropriate tool with which an anthropologist might
observe, compare and explain the juxtaposed play of moral imperatives in
collided systems.

  In this light, it is most interesting to observe what types of
anthropological or archaeological data sets appear on the web, by whom they
are created and maintained -- Native Americans or tribal governments,
archaeologists and anthropologists, and how in time and space these data
sets vary in content and explanatory power. Do they serve free enterprise
(the pursuit of rational self interests), are they egalitarian, or do they
seek to codify the rule of the day and privilege over land management
decisions and historical interpretation?

This afternoon you will hear a presentation about the trials and
tribulations of electronic data and publishing.  We can tell similar
stories, but here, prefer to explain how we are preparing a place which
will allow ourselves opportunities for comparison and self-evaluation.

The Southwestern Archaeology (SWA) web site embodies the idea of people
pursuing rational self interest in support of community.  To that end,
Matthias Giessler and I spent three years creating and supporting SWA
simply for the fun of such work and for larger opportunities to
anthropologically observe the cultural contexts in which archaeologists
negotiate with Native Americans and the general public for the appropriate
levels of intellectual rigor, even-handedness, egalitarianism, and
free-enterprise morality within their profession.

This last Spring, we raised $1500 and set ut to gather a Board of Directors
and establish a 501c3 not-for-profit corporation.  These efforts are
underway.  

We have invited everyone to participate.  We design and host web pages for
free; we provide advice and technical experience to individuals, tribal
groups, and archaeological organizations (e.g., a web page for the San
Carlos Arts and Crafts Cultural Center, advice to the Tohono O'Otam
Basketweavers Association [TOBA], current events and job announcements for
professional and avocational archaeologists).

SWA is attempting to create links to the world.  With the SWA E-mail list,
we push information using the lowest common denominator of technology.  The
information is reliably served -- the participant's cooperation or lack
thereof, their periodicity, resilience, redundancy and open-ness toward
organic development and permutation, most worthy of observation.  If SWA
pushes information on an regional basis, but also is a message unto itself
(in the McLuhan sense), then use of SWA might allow us to better understand
our positions, successes and failures dealing with one another and with
matters of historic preservation and interpretation in a politicized system.

If you think this an arduous task, be assured that we set up SWA using the
common excess capacity found in most daily activities (five minutes at four
in the morning, ten minutes after dinner, etc).

So, allow yourself to become an ethnographic informant and dual citizen of
the world.  Will you or will you not contribute your information and
participate?

We mean not to replace the tradition of meeting face to face, but  merely,
hope to add a new layer to the contexts within which we already operate.
Cross-cultural anthropological insights derived beyond that point are pure
joy.

--------------------


Middens, Mormons and Maricopas, and the Motoring Masses.  Comments
Presented at the 1997 Pecos Conference, Chaco National Historic Park, New
Mexico, by Brian Kenny, Environmental Program Manager / Anthropologist,
Maricopa County Department of Transportation.


Today, I will briefly outline the cultural resource activities of the
Maricopa County Department of Transportation (MCDOT) over the past year.
My area of concern includes the unincorporated regions of the county
surrounding Phoenix and its' sister cities -- that is, much of my work area
excludes incorporated cities, federal lands and state lands, and Indian
communities.  Some projects do cross into or through these other
jurisdictions, however.

The metropolitan area and surrounding hinterlands are home to approximately
2.5 million people.  Because of the large population mass and diverse land
ownership patterns, historic preservation issues can become highly
politicized, or even lost in the shuffle of daily activity, without due
diligence

Three Arizona counties ( Pima, Maricopa, Yavapai) out of fifteen employ
professional cultural resource managers. I am not the County Archaeologist;
no such position exists.  Instead, I work for the Maricopa County
Department of Transportation where I have occasion to serve other county
agencies when I am called to assist.  

At present, the county is contemplating a Public Works Agency (PWA) to
better serve the public.  If PWA comes into being, it may expand historic
preservation within the county.  The County draft Comprehensive Plan
contains language to help the County recognize and systematically consider
historic preservation issues.

The PWA draft vision statement is: "Be recognized as one of the top public
works organizations in the country as you pull out all the stops to astound
our customers with responsiveness, quality, and efficiency while operating
under sound business practices and statutory authority."

MCDOT has been trying to live this vision.  At present we conduct up to 100
archaeological surveys per year with a budget of $150,000 to 200,000
dollars.  Most of these surveys involve the examination of properties
adjacent to existing county roads that are scheduled for reconstruction or
widening and improvements.  MCDOT employs two on-call consulting firms to
conduct these archaeological surveys in advance of construction.  Most
surveys are conducted along a two-mile segment of road with 60 meter
coverage from the edge of pavement on each side of the road.

Since 1993, we seem to complete approximately three archaeological testing
programs per year.  These testing projects typically cost MCDOT $25,000 to
60,000, with subsequent mitigation projects ranging from $75,000 to 500,000.

We do not have a funding problem for historic preservation issues at MCDOT
because we rely upon Highway User Revenue Funds (HURF).  Under the PWA
concept, we may be able to provide future assistance to both HURF and
general fund county agencies.

It seems that things may still " fall through the cracks " in Maricopa
County, but we are trying hard to close any gaps -- both those that are
real, and, those that are merely perceived.  Historic Preservation
compliance is unfolding in a more systematic manner as all county
departments are involving themselves in survey and avoidance or mitigation
planning.

MCDOT recently mitigated a Hohokam midden along the Carefree Highway, a
major east-west arterial running across the northern tier of the county.
SSI conducted the testing program and Dames and Moore completed the
mitigation work.  The assemblage was typical Hohokam.  We anticipated
burials and conducted appropriate consultations, but no burials were
discovered.  A burial had come from the site in the early 1960s, removed by
Don Heizer (Phoenix City Archaeologist), but this set of remains seems to
have disappeared into the annals of research never to reappear.

At Gilbert and McDowell Road, our consultants excavated a Hohokam site
which contained prehistoric canals and pithouses.  We found indications of
historic Mormon remains, and, were able to detail a 120-year history of
cooperative land-use development by Mormons and Halchidhoma Maricopa of the
Salt River Pima Maricopa Indian Community.  The Mormons and Maricopa
re-engineered the Hohokam canals of the Lehi area.  The historic
information and the archaeology are compelling, and we hope to produce a
worthwhile technical and popular report with Dames and Moore, our consultant.

We have upcoming testing and mitigation work along McDowell Road on the
Salt River Pima Maricopa Indian Community, at 27th Avenue and Broadway Road
(Hohokam Canal System 3), and along 107thAvenue north of Rose Garden Lane
(not far from the Calderwood Butte Archaeological District).

Our efforts to provide quality historic preservation compliance activities
for MCDOT and other county agencies continue to improve.  May I answer any
questions from the audience regarding the programs, sites, or the material
culture discussed above?