Message #326: From: AzTeC SW Archaeology SIG To: "'Matthias Giessler'" Subject: Electronic Efforts / CRM Update Date: Mon, 18 Aug 1997 21:24:26 -0700 From: Brian Kenny I made two brief presentations at the 1997 Pecos Conference. For those unable to attend, I replicate my presentations below. -------------------- Spider Woman Taught Us How To Weave: Southwestern Archaeology On The WWW. Comments Presented at the 1997 Pecos Conference, Chaco National Historic Park, New Mexico by Brian Kenny, Southwestern Archaeology [ SWA ] Web Site. The story of Spider Woman teaching the Navajo to weave provides a moral tale and rationale for bringing together lives into a society and linking the society and its material culture in an egalitarian fashion. For the Navajo, the story is crucial. For an archaeologist at Pecos Conference, the story is merely a pretext to talk about weaving together lives with material culture of a different sort. I want to discuss the material culture of the world wide web and the weaving of electrons. Why? For archaeologists and others, the WWW has become a medium that has potential to reduce the costs of sharing information. But, there is more... The folks in Sunnyvale California, the ones who bring us Netscape and other Internet-related software, have their own moral tale to share with us. In their view, the material culture they offer supports another moral imperative -- not capitalism, which literally means a political system where he who owns the tools rules the day -- but free enterprise, that is, a system which allows the freedom to pursue rational self interests. For the archaeologist or anthropologist, then, the Internet is interesting for more than just an opportunity to reduce costs associated with the transmittal and sharing of field data and social information. The Internet is an appropriate tool with which an anthropologist might observe, compare and explain the juxtaposed play of moral imperatives in collided systems. In this light, it is most interesting to observe what types of anthropological or archaeological data sets appear on the web, by whom they are created and maintained -- Native Americans or tribal governments, archaeologists and anthropologists, and how in time and space these data sets vary in content and explanatory power. Do they serve free enterprise (the pursuit of rational self interests), are they egalitarian, or do they seek to codify the rule of the day and privilege over land management decisions and historical interpretation? This afternoon you will hear a presentation about the trials and tribulations of electronic data and publishing. We can tell similar stories, but here, prefer to explain how we are preparing a place which will allow ourselves opportunities for comparison and self-evaluation. The Southwestern Archaeology (SWA) web site embodies the idea of people pursuing rational self interest in support of community. To that end, Matthias Giessler and I spent three years creating and supporting SWA simply for the fun of such work and for larger opportunities to anthropologically observe the cultural contexts in which archaeologists negotiate with Native Americans and the general public for the appropriate levels of intellectual rigor, even-handedness, egalitarianism, and free-enterprise morality within their profession. This last Spring, we raised $1500 and set ut to gather a Board of Directors and establish a 501c3 not-for-profit corporation. These efforts are underway. We have invited everyone to participate. We design and host web pages for free; we provide advice and technical experience to individuals, tribal groups, and archaeological organizations (e.g., a web page for the San Carlos Arts and Crafts Cultural Center, advice to the Tohono O'Otam Basketweavers Association [TOBA], current events and job announcements for professional and avocational archaeologists). SWA is attempting to create links to the world. With the SWA E-mail list, we push information using the lowest common denominator of technology. The information is reliably served -- the participant's cooperation or lack thereof, their periodicity, resilience, redundancy and open-ness toward organic development and permutation, most worthy of observation. If SWA pushes information on an regional basis, but also is a message unto itself (in the McLuhan sense), then use of SWA might allow us to better understand our positions, successes and failures dealing with one another and with matters of historic preservation and interpretation in a politicized system. If you think this an arduous task, be assured that we set up SWA using the common excess capacity found in most daily activities (five minutes at four in the morning, ten minutes after dinner, etc). So, allow yourself to become an ethnographic informant and dual citizen of the world. Will you or will you not contribute your information and participate? We mean not to replace the tradition of meeting face to face, but merely, hope to add a new layer to the contexts within which we already operate. Cross-cultural anthropological insights derived beyond that point are pure joy. -------------------- Middens, Mormons and Maricopas, and the Motoring Masses. Comments Presented at the 1997 Pecos Conference, Chaco National Historic Park, New Mexico, by Brian Kenny, Environmental Program Manager / Anthropologist, Maricopa County Department of Transportation. Today, I will briefly outline the cultural resource activities of the Maricopa County Department of Transportation (MCDOT) over the past year. My area of concern includes the unincorporated regions of the county surrounding Phoenix and its' sister cities -- that is, much of my work area excludes incorporated cities, federal lands and state lands, and Indian communities. Some projects do cross into or through these other jurisdictions, however. The metropolitan area and surrounding hinterlands are home to approximately 2.5 million people. Because of the large population mass and diverse land ownership patterns, historic preservation issues can become highly politicized, or even lost in the shuffle of daily activity, without due diligence Three Arizona counties ( Pima, Maricopa, Yavapai) out of fifteen employ professional cultural resource managers. I am not the County Archaeologist; no such position exists. Instead, I work for the Maricopa County Department of Transportation where I have occasion to serve other county agencies when I am called to assist. At present, the county is contemplating a Public Works Agency (PWA) to better serve the public. If PWA comes into being, it may expand historic preservation within the county. The County draft Comprehensive Plan contains language to help the County recognize and systematically consider historic preservation issues. The PWA draft vision statement is: "Be recognized as one of the top public works organizations in the country as you pull out all the stops to astound our customers with responsiveness, quality, and efficiency while operating under sound business practices and statutory authority." MCDOT has been trying to live this vision. At present we conduct up to 100 archaeological surveys per year with a budget of $150,000 to 200,000 dollars. Most of these surveys involve the examination of properties adjacent to existing county roads that are scheduled for reconstruction or widening and improvements. MCDOT employs two on-call consulting firms to conduct these archaeological surveys in advance of construction. Most surveys are conducted along a two-mile segment of road with 60 meter coverage from the edge of pavement on each side of the road. Since 1993, we seem to complete approximately three archaeological testing programs per year. These testing projects typically cost MCDOT $25,000 to 60,000, with subsequent mitigation projects ranging from $75,000 to 500,000. We do not have a funding problem for historic preservation issues at MCDOT because we rely upon Highway User Revenue Funds (HURF). Under the PWA concept, we may be able to provide future assistance to both HURF and general fund county agencies. It seems that things may still " fall through the cracks " in Maricopa County, but we are trying hard to close any gaps -- both those that are real, and, those that are merely perceived. Historic Preservation compliance is unfolding in a more systematic manner as all county departments are involving themselves in survey and avoidance or mitigation planning. MCDOT recently mitigated a Hohokam midden along the Carefree Highway, a major east-west arterial running across the northern tier of the county. SSI conducted the testing program and Dames and Moore completed the mitigation work. The assemblage was typical Hohokam. We anticipated burials and conducted appropriate consultations, but no burials were discovered. A burial had come from the site in the early 1960s, removed by Don Heizer (Phoenix City Archaeologist), but this set of remains seems to have disappeared into the annals of research never to reappear. At Gilbert and McDowell Road, our consultants excavated a Hohokam site which contained prehistoric canals and pithouses. We found indications of historic Mormon remains, and, were able to detail a 120-year history of cooperative land-use development by Mormons and Halchidhoma Maricopa of the Salt River Pima Maricopa Indian Community. The Mormons and Maricopa re-engineered the Hohokam canals of the Lehi area. The historic information and the archaeology are compelling, and we hope to produce a worthwhile technical and popular report with Dames and Moore, our consultant. We have upcoming testing and mitigation work along McDowell Road on the Salt River Pima Maricopa Indian Community, at 27th Avenue and Broadway Road (Hohokam Canal System 3), and along 107thAvenue north of Rose Garden Lane (not far from the Calderwood Butte Archaeological District). Our efforts to provide quality historic preservation compliance activities for MCDOT and other county agencies continue to improve. May I answer any questions from the audience regarding the programs, sites, or the material culture discussed above?