Message #287:
From: AzTeC SW Archaeology SIG
To:   "'Matthias Giessler'" 
Subject: AAHS GLYPHS -- September 1996 (Part II)
Date: Fri, 06 Sep 96 09:10:00 MST
Encoding: 347 TEXT

[With permission of AAHS, SWA posted the AAHS GLYPHS for September, 1996. 
The PDF file is located at: or  
Many SASIG list members have e-mail but no graphical web browser, and thus, 
cannot access PDF files.  Here is the text of the AAHS GLYPHS Newsletter  
(Vol. 47 No. 3, September 1996); graphics have been stripped away.  If you 
want to contact the AAHS to become a member, or simply wish to make a tax 
deductible donation to a wonderful non-profit organization, check out the 
information provided below or contact AAHS GLYPHS newsletter editor Lynne 
Attardi at:  --  SASIG Ed. ]

AAHS GLYPHS, Vol. 47 No. 3, September 1996 -- (Part II)


Topic of the Monday, September 16, AAHS Monthly Meeting at the UMC:
The Archaeology of Assimilation:  ASU's Excavation of the Phoenix Indian 
School Track Site
Owen Lindauer

Once Native Americans were con-fined to reservations in the 1880s, the 
federal government embarked on a plan to assimilate their children through 
education and, in the process, bring about the disappearance of North 
American Indian cultures.  Artifacts recovered from an archaeological 
investigation of the federal boarding school in Phoenix, dating between 1892 
to about 1926, add a unique perspective to why that plan failed.  Although 
early records of the school (including its newspaper), biographical accounts 
of employees and students, and historical accounts of school life exist, 
archaeological items from the dump provide new and distinctive evidence of 
subtle and lasting changes in Indian children's identity that resulted from 

The Phoenix Indian School differed from other contemporaneous Phoenix 
schools because the students were being educated to be a part of a society 
that was very different from that of their parents.  New and different 
values and customs were introduced to Indians pupils, some of which 
conflicted with what their parents had taught them (e.g., religion). 
 Anglo-conformity best describes the historic federal policy of Indian 
education at the turn-of- the-century.  English language, English 
institutions, and English-oriented cultural patterns were emphasized to 
transform pupils into Americans along Anglo Saxon lines.  A rapid personal 
transformation was demanded that was facilitated through a draconian and 
abrupt detachment from the cultural patterns and memories of home. 
 Traditional Indian practice was addressed with contempt, and stabilizing 
ties to home that made the Indian pupil a person in the sociological sense 
were ignored.

Historical artifacts from the school's dump indicate the outcome of Indian 
assimilation was not conformity but a variation of the melting pot.  The 
assimilative goal was to thrust the Indian and non-Indian together in an 
context devoid of "Indian" culture, values, and identity to remake the 
individual into a "non-Indian".  Those who endured and completed their 
school course work (and many who left school without graduating) were 
educated to incorporate parts of a school-learned American identity with the 
identity they brought with them from home.  Boarding schools also created 
another melting pot unique to Indian people.  The government Indian boarding 
school provided the first place where many Indian people learned of the 
existence of other Indian tribes and their separate, "special" treatment by 
the government.  More than any other institution, these schools, actively or 
passively, created the environment that cultivated and strengthened the idea 
of an "Indian" identity apart from one's individual tribe.

All of the outward signs of their home background were stripped away by 
school policies of  forbidding Indian speech, religion, and clothing.  Their 
"home identity", tied to traditional Indian ways of living, radically 
contrasted their "school identity", which was the planned outcome of federal 
Indian education policy to provide the rudiments of an academic education 
(read, write, speak English), to develop individual identity apart from 
tribe, clan, or family, to Christianize, and to teach citizenship.

Many artifacts marked outward changes in the pupils so that they appeared to 
be assimilated.  Clothing reflective of military discipline and conformity 
was preserved as military buttons from uniforms and glass buttons from 
dresses.  The policy of developing individual identity was a response to the 
native importance attached to kinship and community obligations learned at 
home.  The discovery of combs and toothbrushes marked with names illustrates 
a change in a pupil's identity.  Such marks signify individual ownership 
learned at school contrasting lack of individuality at home.  Education in 
dental hygiene and the dangers of transmitting germs would have encouraged 
pupils to clearly mark their own toothbrushes.  But the toothbrushes 
recovered from the dump were either marked in ink with names very apparent 
or names were engraved or scratched that were barely visible.  Barely 
visible markings are a subtle reflection of the acquisition of the lesson of 
individual ownership while more apparent marks were intended to signal 
ownership in a public context.  Both kinds of markings attest to the varying 
application of the notion of individuality.

Few artifacts marked the persistence of pupils to retain the identity they 
brought with them from home. Practicing traditional religion, defining 
oneself in traditional ways, and practicing traditional technology (stone 
working) were aspects of the "home identity" expressed by students at 
school.  The practice of traditional religion was forbidden.  Religious 
objects such as effigies or fetishes would have had to have been brought 
from home and hidden because, if discovered by school employees, the objects 
would have been confiscated and discarded.  While historic records make no 
mention of the practice of native religion on campus, the archaeological 
recovery of miniature clay representations of animals (a bird, a four-legged 
animal) and a small smoothed, non-local pebble that could have been a fetish 
indicate some pupils continued their practices in secret.  Defining oneself 
in traditional ways may be another expression of home identity. 
 Southwestern pottery marks tribal affiliation by distinctions in color and 
form.  Since pottery making was not one of the industrial arts initially 
taught at the school, we were surprised to discover sherds of historic 
Indian pottery.  Pupils probably brought sherds from home.  Distinct colors 
and patterns on the sherds would have reminded the child of home.  Another 
possible indication of defining oneself in traditional ways was reflected in 
a few of the markings on personal items.  Rather than using the "American" 
name to mark their comb or toothbrush, some pupils choose to mark items with 
dates or a simple line.   The intent of this behavior was for the pupil to 
guard their name because the traditional view of one's name is that it is 
personal and secret and not to be told.  One who knows your name is said to 
have power over you.

The final way some pupils expressed their home identity was by practicing 
traditional stone working technology. Vocational classes comprised half the 
curriculum and shops existed that were stocked with modern tools and 
mechanical equipment.  Practicing traditional technology could have been a 
response to the domination of modern technology in shop classes.  The 
presence of traditional Native American woodworking tools in the trash were 
fashioned by students for their own use.  Obtaining suitable stone raw 
material probably was difficult (only one crude stone projectile point was 
found) but items in the school's trash provided easily obtainable materials 
that could be flaked or worked in the same manner as stone.  Fashioning 
tools of their own making, such as window glass scrapers and retouched 
bottle neck spokeshaves, made a connection to home.  The most unusual 
connection to home is indicated by several bifacially flaked dinner plates 
that were not used as tools, but simply reflect the practice of traditional 
tool making technology.

The Indian School excavation has uncovered artifacts that, with the aid of 
historic documents and archival records, enable the everyday life of pupils 
and employees of the school to be described.  Pupils experienced "culture 
shock" and responded in different ways.  Historic artifacts, some of which 
were modified by pupils, provide evidence of the personal struggle between 
conforming to the school rules, which meant assimilation, and retaining a 
sense of  their "Indian" identity.

Owen Lindauer received his B.A. degree from Binghamton University and M.A. 
and Ph.D. degrees from Arizona State University.  This project expands Dr. 
Lindauer's long term interests in prehistoric cultures of south-central 
Arizona.  He worked on the Roosevelt Platform Mound Study throughout the 
early 1990s as a project director and was responsible for excavating the 
Bass Point and School House Point Mounds.  Ceramic analysis also is an 
interest that Dr. Lindauer has applied to Hohokam red-on-buff vessels, 
black-on-white wares recovered from Arizona's Tonto Basin, and the Salado 
polychromes.  He is now working as a Historic Preservation Specialist for 
the Environmental Planning Division of the Arizona Department of 


On Saturday, September 21, Dr. Bernard Fontana will lead a field trip to the 
site of the first church built at San Xavier del Bac. He and Bill Robinson, 
now retired from the Tree Ring Laboratory, had excavated the site in the 
1950's (see the 1963 Robinson article in Kiva, vol. 29, no. 2).

The Jesuit Father Alonso Espinosa built the church after returning to Bac in 
1756, following a Piman rebellion. Construction took five years. The 
flat-roofed adobe structure measured 23 feet wide by 92.5 feet long. Father 
Espinosa also had the interior adorned with paintings and statues. Parts of 
the old church were later incorporated into the mission buildings built by 
the Franciscans.

Bernard Fontana, who earned his Ph.D. in anthropology at the University of 
Arizona, became interested in the missions of the Southwest soon after he 
arrived in Arizona in 1955. Now retired, he was an ethnologist for the 
Arizona State Museum, lecturer for the Department of Anthropology, and field 
historian for the University of Arizona Library. He and his wife, Hazel, 
have made their home near Mission San Xavier since 1956. He has promoted 
restoration efforts through the Patronato San Xavier, a non-sectarian 
community organization.

Dr. Fontana's many publications include "Who were the builders and 
decorators of Mission San Xavier del Bac?" in the Summer 1996 Kiva.  He also 
recently revised "Biography of a Desert Church: the Story of Mission San 
Xavier del Bac", part of the Smoke Signal series published by the Tucson 
Corral of the Westerners.

Meeting time is at 10:00 am. The field trip may last a couple of hours. The 
fee is $5 for members and $10 for non-members. Fry bread following the trip 
is optional! For information and reservations, contact Laurel Cooper at 
520/327-7235 or E-mail


Western New Mexico University Museum will host the 9th Mogollon Archaeology 
Conference on October 3-5, 1996, in Silver City, New Mexico.  Interested 
individuals were to submit their title and abstract for presenting papers by 
August 1, 1996, on any aspect of archaeology within the Mogollon region. 
 Events tentatively planned include a reception at the university museum on 
Thursday, a banquet and guest speaker on Friday evening, and a field trip to 
selected Mimbres sites on Sunday, October 6.  If you are interested in such 
a trip or have suggestions about which sites you would like to visit, please 
contact the program chair.

Questions regarding registration fees, lodging, papers, the banquet, and the 
field trip should be addressed to the program chair: Cynthia Ann Bettison, 
Director, Western New Mexico University Museum, P.O. Box 680, Silver City, 
New Mexico, 88061; or call 505/538-6386; fax 505/538-6148; E-mail 


Edge of the Cedars Museum in Blanding, Utah, announces intern openings for 
the winter and spring sessions.  Interns can assist staff in one or more of 
the following emphasis areas: collections management, ruin management, 
post-excavation project, public programs/education, exhibits, archives 
management, or library management.  Each session is 10 weeks in length.  The 
intern receives $50/week with housing provided.  Preference is given to 
candidates with background in anthropology, archaeology, museum studies, or 
related fields.  The Museum needs independent workers who are 
detail-oriented.  Photography, illus-tration or computer skills are helpful. 
 To request an application, write Intern Coordinator, Edge of the Cedars 
State Park, P.O. Box 788, Blanding, Utah 84511, or call 801/678-2238.  The 
application deadline for winter session is October 1, and January 15 for the 
spring session.

Planning Begins "Live in the Past Lane"

On August 1, 1996, the kick-off planning meeting for 1997 Arizona 
Archaeology Awareness Month (AAAM) was hosted by the State Historic 
Preservation Office at Arizona State Parks with 39 people in attendance! 
 The following decisions were made regarding next year's celebration.  AAAM 
will again be held during March (March 1-31, 1997) and the next Fair will be 
held at Casa Grande Ruins National Monument in Coolidge on March 7-8, 1997. 
 The theme for the month that was chosen by the planning group is "Life in 
the Past Lane."

Some major changes were made with regard to the annual Archaeology Fair -- 
first, the planning committee agreed that the name of the Fair should be 
changed to "Archaeology Expo" in order to better attract the public and the 
media; second, it was also decided that the Expo should be held on a Friday 
and Saturday (rather than a Saturday and a Sunday) in order to maximize the 
potential for school classes/field trips to visit the activities.

The initial planning meeting for the Archaeology Expo will be held on 
September 19, 1996, at 10 am at Casa Grande Ruins.  We hope to see you 
there!  For more information, please contact Ann Howard, Public Archaeology 
Programs Manager, State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO), at 

Valley of the Moon Haunted Ruins
The George Phar Legler Society is proud to present a new "old fashioned" 
Haunted Ruins show that is fun and not too scary for children and adults of 
all ages. The tours will leave the gate every 30 minutes from 7 pm until 
9:30 pm on October 10-13, 17-20, 24-30, 1996.

Admission for this semi-annual fundraiser that is used for restoration and 
maintenance of this Arizona Historic Site is $5 for adults, $3 for kids 
7-12; kids 6 and under and members are free.  Sunday, October 13 will help 
benefit the Community Food Bank when everyone over 6 is admitted for $1 and 
a can of food.

Valley of the Moon is located at 2544 E. Allen Road, just north of Prince 
and east of Tucson Boulevard.  For more information, call 520/323-1331.


The Arizona Theatre Company has announced its 1996-97 season tour schedule 
of the historic Temple of Music and Art.  Beginning October 12, 1996, 
through May 3, 1997, tours of the facility will be conducted every Saturday 
at 11 am, except October 19, November 30, January 11, March 1, and April 12.

Tours begin in the courtyard of the Temple of Music and Art and are guided 
by AT docents.  Docents will discuss the history of the building, its 
restoration and renovation, and take you on a backstage tour for a 
behind-the-scenes look at the theater.  All tours are open to the public 
free-of-charge and reservations are not required.  Special group tours may 
be arranged at other times by calling AT's Public Relations Director, Hope 
Towner, at 520/884-8210.

Schedules September Events

It's a Small World: Miniatures of the Southwest
September 7-November 18 (Gallery)
You might want to bring a magnifying glass to the Gallery this autumn so you 
can get a closer look at the miniature art works in this exhibit.  The 
display of small-scale South-western art includes tiny Tohono O'odham 
baskets, teensy Kachina dolls, miniature pieces of New Mexican furniture, 
little ceramic pots, small-scale fetishes, Yaqui masks and silver jewelry. 
 Featured Tucson artists include silversmiths Howard and Patricia Sice and 
Jorge Vega and Shirley Whitworth.

Code Talkers Video
Thursday, September 5th through 29th 11 am and 2 pm (Exhibition Building 
A 55-minute video tape, Navajo Code Talkers: The Epic Story tells the story 
of these soldiers' accomplishments through interviews and historic 
photographs and video footage.

Southwest Trading Posts
Tuesday, September 24, 7 pm (Wilson Room)
Granddaughter of traders Marilyn Barker grew up on the Navajo Reservation. 
She will share her knowledge of trading posts in a slide presentation which 
covers some of the more well-known tradings posts of Arizona and New Mexico. 
Free to park members; $2 Nonmembers.  Call for reservations  520/742-6455.


A new and exciting support group is forming and you are invited to join us 
in discussing a world of new possibilities for Elden Pueblo.  Since 1978 
professional archaeologists have supervised interested members of the public 
in archaeological research techniques and artifact analysis at the Elden 
Pueblo ruins just outside of Flagstaff, Arizona.  This unique approach to 
archaeology provides program participants with an awareness of 
archaeological concepts, values, laws and practices through hands-on 
involvement in archaeology.  Since 1992 the Elden Pueblo Project has been 
administered by the Arizona Natural History Association (a non-profit 
organization) in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service.  This unique 
arrangement has expanded the program focus to environmental education issues 
and has increased the number of participants dramatically.

We feel that the possibilities for the members of a Friends of Elden support 
group are limitless.  Besides helping us reach our goals, the door is open 
to a multitude of possible activities--maybe a lecture series, field trips, 
potlucks and barbecues.

If you are interested in being a Friend of Elden Pueblo, we are having an 
introductory lecture for the public and prospective Friends.  The lecture is 
on September 26 from 7-9 pm at Flagstaff City Hall.  Once we receive enough 
expressions of interest, we will call an organizational meeting to 
brainstorm with prospective Friends on how such a program could be 
organized, what ideas people have for further helping the Elden Pueblo 
Project, special opportunities for the Friends, etc.  To attend the Friends 
of Elden introductory meeting, and for more information, please call 

[ AAHS Membership/Subscription Application ] [ graphic ]
[ The Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society ] [ graphic ]

Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society
Arizona State Museum
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona  85721 USA

Dated Material -- Please Deliver Promptly
Address Correction Requested

[ AAHS Objectives] [ graphic ]