Message #337:
From: AzTeC SW Archaeology SIG
To:   "'Matthias Giessler'" 
Subject: Current Research Excerpted from "NewsMAC," October, 1996
Date: Thu, 17 Oct 96 10:20:00 MST
Encoding: 254 TEXT

From: Alan Shalette 

Current Research Reports Excerpted from "NewsMAC," October, 1996: The 
Quarterly Newsletter of the New Mexico Archeological Council

Ute Mountain Ute Irrigated Lands Archaeological Project Ute Mountain area, 
Montezuma County CO
Brian Billman, Project Director   <Cory Breternitz, 
Principal Investigator
Soil Systems Inc 2500 S. Broadway Cortez, CO  81321

Soil Systems, Inc completed the fifth and final field season of the Ute 
Mountain Ute Irrigated Lands Archaeological Project (UMUILAP) in 1996. The 
project is being conducted on the Ute Mountain Ute Reservation, southwest 
Colorado and is sponsored by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and Bureau of 

Two-phased data recovery was conducted in advance of the construction of 
7,634 acres of fields located on the southern piedmont of Ute Mountain. 
 Phase 1 data recovery (content and extent testing). was conducted at 23 
small sherd scatters. In addition, Phase 2 (full) data recovery excavations 
have been conducted at 5 twentieth-century Ute sites, 16 archaic sites, and 
17 Puebloan habitation sites.

Results of the project indicate an extensive archaic occupation in the 
western portion of the project area near the Colorado-Utah border in an area 
of stabilized dunes and canyons. The temporal span of the archaic occupation 
ranges from the early through late archaic phases. Projectile points are 
similar to Oshara Tradition projectile point styles. Most of the archaic 
sites are small surface lithic scatters without preserved features or 
structures and less than 100 or only a few hundred artifacts. These small 
sites are generally located along washes or on low ridgetops between washes.

Four large, dense archaic lithic scatters also were studied that have 
thousands or tens of thousands of artifacts and are located on or near 
canyon rims. Excavation of one of these large archaic sites revealed the 
presence of a shallow pitstructure that radiocarbon dated to between 405 and 
75 BC (calibrated with two sigma). Although corn pollen was found in 
non-feature contexts, the ground stone assemblage suggests processing of 
wild, rather than domesticated plants. The site probably was occupied in the 
Spring and early Summer. Occupants probably were involved in the harvesting 
of Indian Ricegrass and hunting deer and antelope.

Puebloan habitation sites date from BM III to late P III. Results of the 
excavations and previous surveys indicate that the southern piedmont of Ute 
Mountain was occupied sporadically by small groups in BM III. The are a was 
completely abandoned from late BM III through early P II (AD 775 to 1050), 
the peri during which nearby upland areas in Mesa Verde and along the 
Dolores River were experiencing dramatic population growth. In middle P II, 
the area was sporadically reoccupied by small groups. Much like the BM III 
occupation, the P II habitation sites are small, consisting of one or two 
pitstructures. They were occupied for only a few years, possibly on a 
seasonal basis. In late P II (post AD 1075), the population of the area grew 
significantly and coalesced into three communities. One of these communities 
lies on Cowboy Wash within the project area. After 50 to 75 years of 
occupation, all of the southern piedmont was again abandoned. Beginning 
around AD 1225, the area was reoccupied and two communities were formed, 
including one on Cowboy Wash. Each of these communities consisted of a tight 
cluster of small unit pueblos that was associated in some fashion with a 
nearby pueblo with more than 100 rooms. By AD 1280 the piedmont was 

No sites have been identified on the southern piedmont that date to between 
AD 1300 and the late 1800s. The five historic Ute sites investigated during 
the project date to between 1900 and the 1950s. These sites are related to 
livestock raising and include a possible year-round habitation, temporary 
camps, and a branding station.

Vicinity of Pueblo Los Aguajes Caja del Rio Plateau, west of Santa Fe NM
James E. Snead, Principal Investigator Department of Anthropology American 
Museum of Natural History New York, NY  10024-5192

A program of field research was begun in July 1995 in the vicinity of Pueblo 
Los Aguajes (LA 5), located on the Caja del Rio Plateau west of Santa Fe. 
The project was sponsored by the US Forest Service, Santa Fe National 
Forest, Espanola Ranger District, in collaboration with the UCLA Institute 
of Archaeology. Fieldwork consisted of intensive survey within a 1-km radius 
core area surrounding Pueblo los Aguajes, designed to sample archaeological 
manifestations within the community core. A total of 47 new sites were 
recorded, primarily dating to the Archaic and Middle Classic periods.

Research at Los Aguajes is intended to follow up on the principal 
investigator's dissertation research, which examined the organization of 
social and economic space within Early Classic communities in the region. 
Pueblo los Aguajes was selected for fieldwork since it is within 6 km of 
Caja del Rio North (LA 174), one of the communities studied earlier, thus 
providing a go comparative case. With a primary occupation in the 15th 
century AD, Los Aguajes also contributes greater chronological depth to the 
expanded study. Ultimately these data will provide detailed information on 
community organization and settlement dynamics in the late prehistoric 
northern Rio Grande region.

The archaeological record associated with the 15th-century occupation of Los 
Aguajes is extensive. Field houses and formal field systems were identified 
in several locations, particularly along narrow terraces adjacent to 
arroyos. Sherd and lithic scatters elswhere in the vicinity also indicate 
agricultural activity. An elaborate series of shrines is present, 
representing one of the better-preserved "ideological landscapes" in the 
region. Petroglyph panels are found both in association with the 
arroyo-bottom sink which gives the pueblo its name, and extending along the 
walls of adjacent canyons up to one km from the pueblo. Many of these areas 
were accessible via a network of prehistoric trails.

Analysis of the data collected in 1995 is ongoing. Further research at 
Pueblo los Aguajes, including detailed examination of the community house 
itself, is tentatively scheduled for the summer of 1997. I am currently 
serving as Kablfleisch Research Fellow at the American Museum of Natural 
History where, among other things, I hope to examine notes and collections 
made by Nels Nelson at Pueblo los Aguajes in 1915.

Bibliographic Reference:
Snead, James E.
Beyond Pueblo Walls: Competition and Community Among the Eastern Anasazi, AD 
1300-1400. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms (1995).

Spanish Colonial Occupation Bernalillo NM

Christopher A. Turnbow, Principal Investigator TRC/Mariah Associates, Inc.
8417 Washington Pl NE Ste A Albuquerque, NM  87113
voice: 828-2990   fax: 828-3959   

A buried Spanish Colonial occupation (LA 114201) has been recently 
discovered below 0.5 m of alluvial overburden in Bernalillo, New Mexico. 
Investigated under the direction of ChrisTurnbow of TRC Mariah Associates, 
Inc, the site has been tentatively dated from the mid AD 1700s to the early 
1800s. Soil conductivity and magnetometer tests performed by Sunbelt 
Geophysics identified a large rectangular-shaped anomaly measuring 
approximately 60 m north-south by 40 m east-west.

Limited test excavations into this anomaly have confirmed the presence of a 
possible structural foundation, ash-filled pits, a lens of slag, and a 0.5 
to 0.6 m thick ash midden containing significant amounts of faunal and 
floral remains, indigenous ceramics, and Euroamerican materials such as 
majolica. A few pieces of metal, glass, and chipped-stone artifacts were 
also recovered. The majority of the majolica is classified as San Elizario 
Polychrome. Data recovery will occur within a proposed pipeline impact area.

[The following three projects are being conducted by the Office of 
Archaeological Studies for the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation 

Regge N. Wiseman
Office of Archaeological Studies Museum of New Mexico
Santa Fe  NM  87504-2087
voice: 505-827-6343   fax: 505-827-7308

Seven Rivers Project Carlsbad NM

Three large prehistoric sites, all with small historic components, were 
excavated during the summer of 1996 for a bridge replacemnent project along 
the South Seven Rivers drainage north of Carlsbad in Eddy County. The sites 
are near the Brantley Reservoir and can be classified in both the Brantley 
culture sequence (Katz and Katz 1985) and in the northern sector of the 
Trans-Pecos culture area of west Texas (Mallouf 1985).

LA 8053 is a camp with hearths, burned rocks, chipped lithic debris, pot 
sherds, and Livermore-like arrow points belonging to the Globe and/or 
Oriental phase (A.D. 750 to 1450) and possibly to the Terminal Archaic 
period (Brantley phase, A.D. 1 to 750). Patterning in features and artifact 
concentrations appears to be amenable to defining occupation group size and 
site use/reuse configuration. Exotic lithic materials such as Edwards chert 
have been recovered. The historic component at this site consists of 
turn-of-the-century household refuse, a spaced-rock foundation for a frame 
structure(?), and a conglomerate quarry.

LA 112349 is a scattered camp with hearths, burned rocks, and widely 
scattered lithic artifacts. Although datable  artifacts have not been 
recovered from this site, burned soil in the excavated hearths will provide 
several radiocarbon dates as well as information about site function. The 
historic components consist of numerous wagon-road ruts emanating from a 
river crossing at the south edge of the site. These ruts probably date to 
the turn of the century and undoubtedly relate to the main north-south road 
connecting the Seven Rivers "community" with other communities up and down 
the Pecos Valley.

LA 38264 is a very large camp associated with a burned-rock mound situated 
on the edge of the terrace which is presumed to be a baking-facility. 
 Datable artifacts include brown ware pottery (Globe[?] phase, A.D. 
750-1150), arrow points, a fragment of a Southern Plains-type beveled knife 
(Oriental phase, A.D. 1150-1450), and a reworked Terminal Archaic point 
(Brantley phase, A.D. 1-750). Numerous hearths, burned rock concentrations, 
and artifact clusters are arrayed in the vicinity of the burned-rock mound, 
suggesting the camps of familial groups of a band(?) gathered to use the 
baking facility. Exotic lithic materials such as obsidian and Alibates 
dolomite have been recovered. The historic components consist of one major 
and several minor turn-of-the-century trash concentrations that represent a 
homestead(?) and individual trash dumping episodes.

Gavilan Project Ojo Caliente NM

Ten prehistoric and historic sites will be investigated as part of a highway 
construction project near Ojo Caliente (Rio Arriba County) in the fall of 
1996. Eight sites are are prehistoric grid fields belonging to the Classic 
peri (A.D. 1325 to 1540/1600) of the Rio Grande region. Another site 
contains peripheral components of Hilltop Pueblo, a one-plaza biscuit ware 
village dating to the 15th century A.D.  The last site contains the old Ojo 
Caliente morada and the foundations of an early 20th century store.

Pojoaque-South Project Vicinity of Pojoaque Pueblo NM

Three prehistoric and historic sites near Pojoaque Pueblo (Santa Fe County) 
will be excavated for a highway improvement project during the winter of 
1996/1997. Excavations will include a small section of a Developmental 
period site with great kiva, A.D. 800-1200 (LA 835), sections of a 
multi-component Developmental period/early historic site located northwest 
of LA 835, and a Coalition period (A.D. 1200-1325) field house site.

Galeana Site Casas Grandes Region, Chihuahua, Mexico
Td S. VanPool, Field Director   
Christine S. VanPool, Crew Chief   (505) 254-1496
Department of Anthropology University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM  87131

>From May 30 through July 17, 1996, the University of New Mexico (UNM) an d 
Mexico's Instituto Nacional Anthropologia e Historia (INAH) conducted 
excavations at the Galeana site in the Casas Grandes Region of Chihuahua, 
Mexico. The project, directed by Dr. Robert Leonard (UNM) and Rafael Cruz 
(INAH) included 15 UNM students, 15 ENAH (Escuela Nacional Anthropologia e 
Historia) students, one SMU student, and a single canine, Kirby. The project 
was a truly international venture with a total of five nationalities being 
represented: U.S., Mexican, Canadian, Argentine, and Indonesian.

This work was in the third year of an ongoing research project spearheaded 
by UNM and INAH. The research at Galeana is intended to achieve three goals. 
First, it is designed to provide information on the cultural history and 
chronology of the Galeana Site. Second, is to determine how the Galeana Site 
relates to the Casas Grandes interaction sphere defined by Charles Di Peso 
as the result of his work at Paquime. Finally, the project is facilitating 
increased communication between American Southwestern archaeologists and 
Mexican archaeologists working in Chihuahua.

The Galeana site is roughly 1 x 0.3 km in size and only slightly smaller 
than Paquime. While results to date are largely preliminary, we have 
determined that the site was at least three stories tall in some areas and 
includes both prehistoric and historic components. The site is 
well-stratified and should provide go chronological control. Laboratory 
analyses of ceramic, flaked stone, and faunal materials collected at the 
site is underway at UNM.

Excavations at Galeana are planned for the next several years. Limited 
additional analysis of Di Peso's collections from Paquime will provide an 
updated basis for comparison. Ultimately, we expect to determine the nature 
and extent of specialized craft pruction at the Galeana site, and hope to 
determine the extent and nature of interaction between Galeana and Paquime 
and perhaps other sites now being investigated by others working in the 

[END Current Research "NewsMAC," October, 1996]