Message #333:
From: AzTeC SW Archaeology SIG
To:   "'Matthias Giessler'" 
Subject: USDA Research Database (CRIS)
Date: Wed, 16 Oct 96 11:11:00 MST
Encoding: 234 TEXT


A useful research data base for archaeologists is the 
USDA Research Database (CRIS).

Here are some examples of key words and search results from the data base:

EXAMPLE A

KEYWORD: Archeology
RESULTING URL: 
http://medoc.gdb.org/cgi-bin/open/search-sf1/STC/usda2/68941344/68944363/data3/work/db-annex/usda/usda.data/seed=archeology
Accession Number: 9156485
Agency/Service: OCI
Project Number: ARZZ-NAU-FOR35C2
Performing Institution:
NORTHERN ARIZONA UNIVERSITY
FLAGSTAFF , ARIZONA 86011
Performing Organization: SCHOOL OF FORESTRY
Investigator: LEE M E
Project Title: VISITOR EXPERIENCES AT 3 ANASAZI SITES
Duration: 09/23/91 - 04/01/94
Sub Class:Forestry Related
Objectives: Describe the socio-demographic characteristics and on-site use 
patterns of visitors to park and forest area cultural attractions. Identify 
attributes visitors perceive as important to the quality of their 
experiences. Determine if experience attributes differ among the three 
Anasazi cultural parks. Identify aspects that did not meet visitor 
expectations. Demonstrate how information on visitor
characteristics and preferred experience attributes can be useful to park 
and forest land managers providing a diversity of Anasazi cultural 
experience opportunities. A regional perspective focusing on Forest Service 
and National Park Service cultural resource management will be emphasized.
Approach: Data will be gathered at three Anasazi cultural parks: Mesa Verde 
National Park, Wupatki National Monument, and Chaco Culture National 
Historic Park, all located in pinyon-juniper woodland areas. Data will be 
gathered using a two-stage visitor survey conducted during the spring 
through fall use seasons of 1992 and 1993. On-site interviews or a 
combination on-site interview and mail-back surveys will be used to gather 
data. Application of project results will target forest and park cultural 
resource management.
Keywords: FORESTRY FOREST-MULTIPLE-USE CULTURE-(SOCIOLOGY) AMERICAN-INDIANS 
ARCHEOLOGY RESOURCE-MANAGEMENT VISITORS PERCEPTIONS SOCIAL-ECONOMICS 
DEMOGRAPHY RECREATION-USERS USER-SURVEYS INTERVIEWS NATIONAL-PARKS HISTORY 
EXPECTATIONS OUTDOOR-RECREATION
Progress: This research was designed to assess visitor experiences at three 
cultural national parks located in the Southwest. Visitors at Chaco Culture 
National Historic Site, Mesa Verde National Park, and Wupatki National 
Monument were contacted to assess their reasons for visiting the park, their 
perceptions of facilities, services and programs offered by the park, and 
their assessment of any problems they may have encountered during their 
visit. A final report was prepared and accepted by National Park Service 
staff. A final closeout meeting was also held with Park Service managers 
where application of results was discussed.
Publications: LEE, M.E. AND STEPHENS, D. 1994. Anasazi cultural parks study: 
Assessment of visitor experiences at three cultural parks. Unpublished final 
report. Northern Arizona University, School of Forestry, Flagstaff.PH R902 
Outdoor Recreation  Relevance: Resource Development and Management 
 Relevance: Recreational Resources  Relevance: Sociology  General Relevance: 
Forest Recreation and Esthetics  General Relevance: Range, Wildlife

EXAMPLE B

KEYWORD: Archeology
RESULTING URL:
http://medoc.gdb.org/cgi-bin/open/search-sf1/STC/usda2/74817545/74821887/dat  
a3/work/db-annex/usda/usda.data/seed=archeology
Accession Number: 9158282
Agency/Service: CSRS
Project Number: OHO00040
Performing Institution: OHIO STATE UNIV  COLUMBUS , OHIO 43210
Performing Organization: COLLEGE OF HUMAN ECOLOGY
Investigator: JAKES K A
Project Title: ANALYSIS OF DEGRADED POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Duration: 06/01/92 - 06/30/96
Objectives: To apply the analytical techniques developed in past research to 
a larger group of materials, including dyes in addition to fibers, to expand 
the comparative collections of both fibrous plant materials and marine 
textiles, to test the suitability of Raman microspectroscopy in dye 
identification on fibers, to test the suitability of plasma ashing for 
sample preparation, to explore relationships evident in the comparison of 
fields in the databases, and to propose models for the natural aging 
mechanisms operating in the systems under study.
Approach: Techniques of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, 
x-ray microanalysis, x-ray diffraction, visible, infrared and Raman 
microspectroscopy will be employed. Statistical analysis if the resulting 
data will be used to explore correlations reflected in the databases. The 
interaction of mechanisms of degradation in natural environments will be 
explored and models of these mechanisms will be proposed and tested.
Keywords: POLYMERS DEGRADATION TEXTILES ARCHEOLOGY 
SCANNING-ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY LASER-RAMAN-SPECTROSCOPY INFRARED-RADIATION 
LIGHT CHEMICAL-ANALYSIS X-RAY-DIFFRACTION LIGHT-MICROSCOPY SPECTROSCOPY 
MECHANISM-OF-ACTION AGING ASH FIBER-PROPERTIES DYES
Progress: Analysis of Degraded Polymeric Materials. Further study of the 
fiber examples inthe Comparative Plant Fiber Collection (CPFC) has included 
refinements in classificatory distinction based on morphology as well as on 
fiber diameter measurements. A method was developed for cold plasma ashing 
fiber samples followed by SEM-EDS analyses to elucidate structure and 
elemental composition of inorganic inclusions.These inclusions are 
attributes which aid in classification of certain plant materials. The CPFC 
has been employed in the identification/characterization of archaeological 
materials from five different sites ranging in chronological dates from 925 
B.C. to 1200 A.D. Examination of mineralized samples from 1600 A.D. included 
XRD, SEM, EDS, and infrared microspectroscopy, yielding unprecedented 
insights into the processes of infiltration and mineralization of fiber 
structures in archaeological sites. Examination of silk fabrics submerged at 
a deep ocean site for 133 years revealed unique fabric technologies and 
raised questions concerning chemical and physical structural composition of 
the fibers, including the presence of dyes, mordants, and weighting 
agents.BP 9401 TO 9412
Publications: Jakes, K. A. and Mitchell, J.C., Cold Plasma Ashing 
Preparation of Plant Phytoliths and their Examination with Scanning Electron 
Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-rays, Journal of 
Archaeological Science, accepted for publicatio Wang, W., Jakes, K.A., 
Evaluation of the Degradation of Cellulosic Textiles in the Deep Ocean 
Environment, Ars Textrina, accepted for publication. Jakes, K. A., Sibley, 
L. R., Yerkes, R.W., A Comparative Collection for the Study of Fibers Used 
in Prehistoric Textiles from Eastern North America, Journalof Archaeological 
Science 21: 641-650 (1994). Sibley, L. R. and Jakes, K. A., Implications of 
Coloration in Etowah Textiles from Burial 57, invited chapter, In, D.N. 
Scott and .J. Meyers, eds., Archaeometry of Pre-Columbian Sites and 
Artifacts, J.Paul Getty Conservation Institute, pp. Jakes, K.A., Chen H-L., 
Sibley, L.R., Toward the Development of a ClassificationSystem for Plant 
Fibers, Ars Textrina, 20: 157-179 (1993). Jakes, K. A. and Wang, W., The 
Characteristics of Textile Fibers and Fabrics Recovered from a Historic Deep 
Ocean Site, Ars Textrina, 19: 161-181 (1993).  Relevance:  Selection and 
Care of Clothing, Textiles  Relevance: Nonfood Chemical and Physical 
Properties  Relevance: Clothing and Textiles  Relevance: 
Chemistry-Analytical  Relevance: Chemistry-Organic  Relevance: 
Chemistry-Other  General Relevance: Home, Community, Working Environment 
 General Relevance: Programs, Human Development

EXAMPLE C

KEYWORD: Archeology
RESULTING URL:
http://medoc.gdb.org/cgi-bin/open/search-sf1/STC/usda2/53323392/53326872/dat  
a3/work/db-annex/usda/usda.data/seed=archeology
Accession Number: 9151444
Agency/Service: CSRS
Project Number: CA-B*-FPL-5231-MS
Performing Institution: UNIV OF CALIFORNIA  BERKELEY , CALIFORNIA 94720
Performing Organization: FOREST PRODUCTS LABORATORY
Investigator: SCHNIEWIND A P
Project Title: NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF CONDITION OF AND TREATMENT FOR 
ARCHAEOLOGICAL WOOD
Duration: 06/12/90 - 09/30/94
Sub Class: Forestry Related
Objectives: Investigate nondestructive evaluation methods for assessing the 
degree of deterioration in archaeological wood, study the compatibility of 
conservation treatments with the specific condition of the wood to be 
treated, and investigate nondestructive methods for evaluating effectiveness 
of conservation treatments.
Approach: Nondestructive evaluation methods, with special emphasis on 
acousto-ultrasonics,will be investigated, concentrating initially on 
waterlogged wood. Basic acousto-ultrasonic parameters will first be studied 
using sound, waterlogged wood, proceeding to artificially deteriorated wood 
and finally collecting archaeological, waterlogged wood.
Keywords: WOOD NON-DESTRUCTIVE-TESTS ULTRASONICS ACOUSTICS CONSERVATION 
ARCHEOLOGY DETERIORATION WOOD-DETERIORATION WOOD-TREATMENT EVALUATION 
WOOD-QUALITY WATERLOGGING WATER-CONTENT Progress:
NUMBER OF GRADUATE STUDENTS = 2. Consolidation treatments of samples dating 
to about 700 B.C. from the burial mounds at Gordion, Turkey, were evaluated 
with a specially devised needle hardness test. The improvement in needle 
hardness ranged mostly between 50 and 150 percent. Vacuum impregnation and 
soaking gave about the same results, and thus conservators were able to use 
the much simpler soaking method in further treatments. The applicability of 
ultrasonic analysis to waterlogged archaeological wood was studied. The 
theoretical connection between wood stiffness, density, and the speed of 
sound could be verified, if bound water in wood is and free water is not 
included in the calculation. Bacterial degradation of archaeological wood 
reduces the tissue density well before it reduces the elastic properties. 
Traditional approaches based solely on measurements of the speed of sound 
were therefore found inapplicable. The acoustic impedance or acoustic 
hardness of a material depends on both Rs density and its elasticity. A beam 
of  ultrasonic energy incident on the boundary of bacterially decayed and 
sound wood will perceive a contrast and some of the energy will  be 
reflected at this interface.Experiments measuring the reflection of 
ultrasonic energy at frequencies around 1 MHz show that penetration depth 
and spatial resolution are sufficient to locate boundaries between 
bacterially decayed wood and sound wood, and this is therefore a promising 
method of nondestructive evaluation for archaeological wood.
Publications: SCHNIEWIND, A.P. and EASTMAN, P.Y. 1994. Consolidant 
distribution in deteriorated wood treated with soluble resins. Journal of 
the American Institutefor Conservation 33(3):247-55.  Relevance: 
 New-Improved Forest Products  Relevance: Nonfood Chemical and Physical 
Properties  Relevance: Nonfood Product and Process Development  Relevance: 
Trees, Forests, and Forest  Products Relevance: Engineering-Other  General 
Relevance: Forest Harvesting, Processing, Marketing  General Relevance: 
Range, Wildlife


EXAMPLE D

KEYWORD: Arizona/ cultural resources
RESULTING URL:
http://medoc.gdb.org/cgi-bin/open/search-sf1/STC/usda2/99800609/99802629/dat  
a3/work/db-annex/usda/usda.data/seed=cultural+resources
Accession Number: 9166099
Agency/Service: OCI
Project Number: ARZZ-NAU-FOR35S5
Performing Institution: NORTHERN ARIZONA UNIVERSITY  FLAGSTAFF , ARIZONA 
86011
Performing Organization: SCHOOL OF FORESTRY
Investigator: LEE M E
Project Title: SOCIAL SCIENCE PROJECT NEEDS ASSESSMENT
Duration: 08/01/94 - 05/30/96
Sub Class: Forestry Related
Objectives: Needs assessment project of recreation use while preserving the 
natural and CULTURAL conditions that exist among the units within the 
National Park System.
Approach: The needs assessment will be conducted on 14 NPS units on the 
Colorado Plateau. Phase I: Review of planning and management documents. 
Phase II: On-site meetings with NPS staff. Phase III: Data analysis. Phase 
IV: Write-up of results.
Keywords: RECREATION NATURAL-RESOURCES RESOURCE-MANAGEMENT SOCIOLOGY 
NATIONAL-PARKS SOCIAL-NEEDS RECREATION-SITES FUTURE-NEEDS 
RECREATION-UTILIZATION WILDERNESS-PRESERVATION CULTURAL-SYSTEMS 
RESOURCE-PLANNING PROGRAM-EVALUATION MANAGEMENT-POLICIES DATA-ANALYSIS
Progress: The purpose of this research is to survey National Park Service 
managers on the Colorado Plateau to assess social science research needs. A 
screening of management plans for Colorado Plateau Parks was completed to 
identified needs and was supplemented with information from on-site visits 
to Plateau Parks and Monuments. A nominal group process was used to assess 
social and CULTURAL resource research needs identified by park staff. 
Preliminary results were presented at the Conference on Research on the 
Colorado Plateau in Fall 1995 and a final report will be completed by spring 
1996.  Relevance:  Outdoor Recreation  Relevance: Resource Development and 
Management  Relevance: Recreational Resources  Relevance: Sociology  General 
Relevance: Recreational RESOURCES  General Relevance: Forest Recreation and 
Esthetics   General Relevance: Range, Wildlife