Message #136:
From: AzTeC SW Archaeology SIG
To:   "'Matthias Giessler'" 
Subject: Rock Images and Landscapes Digital Mapping and Recording Project
Date: Wed, 08 May 96 08:06:00 MST
Encoding: 128 TEXT

From: Jim Ebert


Under partial funding from the National Science Foundation (Grant No. 
DMI-9560452), Ebert & Associates, Inc. is conducting a feasibility study 
focusing on the development of  "Rock Art Data Recording, Management and 
Analysis:  An Integrated System Incorporating  3-Dimensional Digitizing, 
Geographic Information Systems, Photogrammetry and Other Digital Mapping and 
Imaging  Technologies."

Ebert & Associates is an Albuquerque, New Mexico firm specializing in 
archaeological, anthropological, forensic and environmental applications of 
remote sensing, photogrammetry, image processing, and digital mapping 
technologies.  The Rock Images and Landscapes Digital Mapping and Recording 
Project is funded by a Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) 
grant from the National Science Foundation.  The SBIR program provides for 
Phase I funding to assess the feasibility of innovative products or 
processes for an initial 6-month period, following the successful completion 
of which a proposal for a 2-year, Phase II period of product development is 

Rock image (see footnote) studies are currently experiencing increased use 
of digital technologies, particularly digital imaging techniques.  Ebert & 
Associates' research will build upon such interests, incorporating a wide 
range of methods and techniques for the "total" recording of rock images and 
their significantly associated environments and landscapes.  Such techniques 
will include

* 3-dimensional digitizing of rock art elements and their minute details, as 
well as geochemical sample locations, in the field;

* the collection of locational data for mapping rock images, rock faces, and 
details of the terrain a wide range of resolutions and scales using 
electronic distance measurement (EDM), global positioning systems (GPS), 
aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, analog and digital photographic and 
imaging, and 3-dimensional digitizers;

* the integration of all scales of spatial data, as well as associated 
non-spatial data, in a single spatially-organized database utilizing
2-dimensional and 3-dimensional computer aided design (CAD) and geographic 
information systems (GIS) technologies; and software developed specifically 
to facilitate the integration of all stages of the "total system," from 
in-field 3-dimensional digitizing and other map data collection, through 
integration and management of the database in CAD and GIS environments, to 
viewing, statistical analysis, and data output in multiple forms.

One critical component of our Phase I feasibility research is to survey the 
present data needs of rock image researchers, managers, conservators, users 
and other shareholders, as well as additional needs which could be 
facilitated by the application of new digital technologies in rock image 
recording and data management.  We would like to ask archaeologists, 
managers and others whose interests or responsibilities include rock images 
to participate in this research by answering and returning a short 
questionnaire, and to communicate any additional information on their needs 
and suggestions for the development of digital methods and techniques.

Rock Images Data Recording Questionnaire

Rather than a form with blanks to be filled in, this questionnaire is 
relatively unstructured, its categories included as suggestions about what 
respondents might like to include in their answers.  Any other, related 
information is also welcomed.

1)  What do you record??
        Individual figures
        Dimensions and measurements (of what?)
        Panels (what constitutes a panel?)
        Topography, viewsheds, acoustics, etc.
        Relationship of figures and panels to surrounding environmental 
        Relationship of figures and panels to surrounding cultural features 
         or sites
        Site condition and impacts
        Management-related data
        Other data

2)  How do you record and manage data?  We're especially interested in 
    digital and other innovative techniques you have developed or adapted.
        Forms (could you send us an example?)
        Photography (film types, special methods, etc.?)
        Digital imaging
        Site maps
        Panel or figure sketches
        Scaled drawings
        Physical measurements (of what?)
        Surveying instruments
        CAD, GIS and other digital mapping methods
        Do you take samples for dating or other purposes?
        Other recording techniques and methods

3)  If you had access to methods for recording 3-dimensional rock image and 
    surrounding landscape data at a wide range of spatial scales, what new 
    applications do you think you would consider in the areas of
        Analysis and research
        Site management
        Site conservation
        Site condition and impact monitoring
        Law enforcement and site protection
        Other new approaches and applications

4)  What literature, reports and other descriptions of rock image and 
    landscape data recording, management and analysis should we be aware of in 
    the course of our research (your own articles and reports, as well as those 
    of others)?

Please send responses and correspondence to one of the following addresses:

        Jim Ebert
        Ebert & Associates, Inc.
        3700 Rio Grande Blvd. NW, Suite 3
        Albuquerque NM 87107

        (505) 344-2345
        Fax (505) 344-2444


Footnote: The term "rock images" will be used in the course of this research to denote petroglyphs, pictographs, and all of the "rock art" to resolve terminological ambiguity as well as in recognition of the creators, users, and shareholders to whom the concept of these image as "art" is troublesome or incongruous.