Message #393:
From: AzTeC SW Archaeology SIG
To:   "'Matthias Giessler'" 
Subject: Testing Plan for McDowell-Gilbert Road (Part I)
Date: Tue, 03 Dec 96 08:44:00 MST
Encoding: 450 TEXT


From: Glenn P Darrington
Subject: Testing Plan to SASIG
Date: Monday, December 02, 1996 12:31PM

Dear Brian:
We have no objections to you sending the Dames & Moore testing plan to the 
SASIG membership (great idea).
Sincerly, Glenn Darrington, Dames & Moore

[  SASIG Readers -- Please note -- At
http://www.sscf.ucsb.edu:80/SAABulletin/14.5/SAA17.html you will find an 
article titled "THE MANY FACES OF CRM -- The Business of Archaeology: 
Planning the Work of Cultural Resource Compliance" by Janet L. Friedman. 
 The SAA Bulletin article contains great information about writing 
successful scopes of work, and, responding to scopes of work.  The 
consulting firm of Dames and Moore (DM) recently prepared an archaeological 
testing proposal for MCDOT.  The SASIG presents the DM proposal in two parts 
(sorry -- tables and graphics have been stripped from this electronic 
version).  MCDOT views the DM proposal as a highly successful response to 
our on-call CRM needs.  We plan to be in the field in a few weeks. --  Brian 
Kenny, MCDOT  ]



ARCHAEOLOGICAL TESTING PLAN FOR THE McDOWELL ROAD AND GILBERT ROAD 
INTERSECTION IMPROVEMENT PROJECT MESA, ARIZONA prepared for Maricopa County 
Department of Transportation 2901 W. Durango Street Phoenix, Arizona  85009 
under Archaeological On-Call Services Contract No. 1996-39/C64-97-079-5 
prepared by Glenn P. Darrington & A.E. Rogge, Dames & Moore, 7500 N. Dreamy 
Draw Drive, Suite 145, Phoenix, Arizona  85020

19 November 1996

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract                           						ii
Introduction                       						1
Regulatory Setting                     				    1
Natural Environment                						4
Cultural Setting                       				    4
Goals and Organization of the Testing Plan        		7    
Research Perspective                   				    9
Investigative Strategies, Methods, and Procedures 10
Archival Research                       			    10
Backhoe Trenching                       			    10
Mapping and Feature Recording          				    10
Laboratory Methods                 						12
Reporting                          						12
Implementing the Testing Plan     				        13
Schedule and Estimated and Level of Effort        		13
Study Team                         						13
Organizational Qualifications         		            14
Summary and Conclusions                 				14
References Cited                        				15

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1       Project Vicinity             		    2
Figure 2       Project Area             				8
Figure 3       Proposed Trenching Plan    		   	    11

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1   Estimated Effort                  		    14

ABSTRACT

The document proposes a testing plan to assess the potential for subsurface 
archaeological deposits within the construction area for the McDowell Road 
and Gilbert Road Intersection Improvement Project located in Mesa, Arizona. 
 The Maricopa County Department of Transportation (MCDOT) is proposing to 
construct turning lanes and install traffic lights to accommodate the volume 
of traffic at the intersection.  This requires an increase of the existing 
right-of-way for the streets approaching the intersection by up to 22 feet 
plus an additional 15 to 30 feet of contemporary construction easements in 
parts of the project area.  The project area is located on lands managed by 
Maricopa County and the City of Mesa, plus new right-of-way being acquired 
from private landowners.  A small parcel of federal land administered by the 
Bureau of Reclamation, measuring 22 feet by 64 feet, may also be acquired 
near the extreme southern end of the project area.

Although previous archaeological surveys conducted for the proposed project 
resulted in the recording of only two isolated prehistoric artifacts, 
archaeological testing has been recommended because archival information 
suggests the possibility of two prehistoric irrigation canal alignments 
being present within the construction zone.  Several other large prehistoric 
Hohokam villages have been mapped in the vicinity of the project, and based 
on recollections of local residents, there also appears to be some potential 
for buried historic features as well.

The proposed testing plan is formulated to assist MCDOT's compliance with 
the Arizona Antiquities Act.  The proposed plan focuses on excavation of a 
series of backhoe trenches, aggregating to a total of approximately 2,000 to 
2,500 linear feet.  The strategy is designed to provide a sufficient sample 
of subsurface deposits to determine whether archaeological resources are 
present, and to document such resources sufficiently to formulate 
recommendations regarding their significance and treatment.  In addition, 
the plan proposes additional background research focusing on the historic 
occupation of the project area.

ARCHAEOLOGICAL TESTING PLAN FOR THE McDOWELL ROAD AND GILBERT ROAD 
INTERSECTION IMPROVEMENT PROJECT

INTRODUCTION
The Maricopa County Department of Transportation (MCDOT) is proposing  to 
widen the intersection of McDowell and Gilbert roads located in Mesa, 
Arizona (Figure 1).  The proposed project will involve construction of 
turning lanes and installation of traffic lights to accommodate the volume 
of traffic through the intersection.  The project requires widening each 
road as it approaches the intersection.  MCDOT will acquire up to 22 feet of 
additional permanent right-of-way, increasing the present right-of-way along 
these road segments up to 88 feet.  In addition, approximate temporary 
construction easements 15 to 30 feet wide will be needed in some areas.

The project area is located in southeastern Maricopa County, at the boundary 
between the City of Mesa and the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community. 
 The intersection of McDowell and Gilbert roads lies at the juncture of four 
townships, and includes portions of  Section 1, T1N, R5E; Section 6, T1N, 
R6E; and Section 31, T2N, R6E.  The project area has been designed to avoid 
any further encroachment onto the Salt River Indian Reservation and does not 
include any portion of T2N, R5E.  The existing right-of-way is held by 
Maricopa County and the City of Mesa.  Additional rights-of-way are being 
acquired from private landowners.  A very small parcel of federal land may 
be needed at the extreme southern end of the project.  This parcel, 
measuring 22 feet by 64 feet, is administered by the Bureau of Reclamation 
as an abandoned well site adjacent to the Consolidated Canal.

Two previous archaeological surveys have been conducted for the proposed 
project area (Davis 1994; Mitchell 1995).  Each of these studies resulted in 
the recording of only a single isolated prehistoric artifact, but archival 
information indicates two prehistoric irrigation canal alignments pass 
through the project area.  Several other large prehistoric Hohokam villages 
have been mapped in the vicinity.  Mormon settlers arrived in the 1870s and 
the historic community of Lehi is situated approximately a mile to the west 
of the project area. Therefore archaeological testing was recommended to 
assess the potential for subsurface archaeological deposits that might 
provide important information about the Hohokam or Mormon settlement of the 
region.  Dames & Moore was retained under an on-call contract with MCDOT to 
conduct the proposed archaeological testing.

Regulatory Context

The archaeological investigations are being undertaken to comply with the 
Arizona Antiquities Act  (Arizona Revised Statutes Title 41, Chapter 4.1, 
Section 41-841 through 41-846, 3-906.01, 13-3702, and 13-3702.01).  Section 
41-844 of the Act stipulates that "A person in charge of any survey, 
excavation or construction on any lands owned or controlled by . . . any 
county . . .shall report promptly to the director of the Arizona State 
Museum the existence of any archaeological, paleontological or historical 
site or object that is at least fifty years old and that is discovered in 
the course of such survey, excavation or construction or other like activity 
and, in consultation with the director, and shall immediately take all 
reasonable steps to secure its preservation."  MCDOT has established 
procedures for incorporating archaeological surveys into the planning of 
transportation projects to proactively address this requirement in an 
attempt to avoid delays in  project implementation schedules.

Figure 1   Project Location

The Arizona Antiquities Act protects any "historic or prehistoric ruin, 
burial ground, archaeological or vertebrate paleontological site, or site 
including fossilized footprints, inscriptions made by human agency, or any 
other archaeological, paleontological or historical feature" (Section 
41-841) An archaeological specimen is defined as "any item resulting from 
past human life or activities which is at least one hundred years old 
including ptetroglyphs, pictographs, paintings, pottery, tools, ornaments, 
jewelry, textiles, ceremonial objects, weapons, armaments, vessels, ships, 
vehicles and human skeletal remains." (Section 41-841).  A 1990 amendment 
(ARS 41-844) requires the ASM director to consult with  interested parties 
in determining the  disposition of human remains, funerary objects, sacred 
ceremonial objects, and objects of national or tribal patrimony found on 
state lands, including lands owned or controlled by counties, 
municipalities, or other agencies and public institutions of the state 
(Section 41-844).

Section 41-842 of the Antiquities Act stipulates that investigation of 
antiquities on state lands must be done under the terms of permits issued by 
the ASM director.  Therefore, we will apply for and obtain such a permit 
before initiating any fieldwork.  All investigations will be conducted in 
accordance with stipulations of the permit.

MCDOT has determined that its activities are not governed by the State 
Historic Preservation Act, but MCDOT nevertheless routinely provides the 
Arizona State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO) an opportunity to comment 
on the agency's undertakings concurrent with MCDOT's consultations with the 
ASM director.  This "voluntary compliance" typically follows a three-step 
framework:  (1) identification and evaluation to determine if historic 
properties are present, (2) assessment of potential effects of a proposed 
project have on historic properties, and (3) consultation to determine 
mitigative measures to avoid or lessen negative effects. (These procedures 
are modeled on the federal regulatory process for complying with Section 106 
of the National Historic Preservation Act.)

The criteria for evaluating the significance of "historic properties" 
protected by the State Historic Preservation Act are those for listing on 
the State Register of Historic Places (which are essentially identical to 
National Register criteria).  To be determined eligible for inclusion on the 
Arizona State Register properties must be important in history, 
architecture, archaeology, engineering, or culture.  They also must possess 
integrity of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and 
association, and meet at least one of four criteria:

     criterion A:   are associated with events that have made a significant 
contribution to the broad patterns of our history

     criterion B:   are associated with the lives of persons significant in 
our past

     criterion C:   embody the distinctive characteristics of a type, 
period, or method of construction, or that represent
               the work of a master, or that possess high artistic values, 
or that represent a significant distinguishable
               entity whose components may lack individual distinction

     criterion D:   have yielded, or may be likely to yield, information 
important in prehistory or history.

Natural Environment

The project area is located approximately one mile south of the Salt River 
near the northeastern margin of the Gila-Salt Basin, which is within the 
Basin and Range physiographic province as defined by Thornbury (1965). 
 Generally, this portion of the province is characterized by flat desert 
valleys with isolated mountain ranges.  Elevations range from about 1,200 
feet in the desert flats to about 2,000 feet on some peaks.  The elevation 
of the project area is approximately 1,256 feet.

The local climate ranges from summer highs of 115 degrees Fahrenheit to 
occasional below freezing temperatures in the winter.  Precipitation 
averages less than 10 inches a year with rains generally limited to distinct 
seasons.  The summer rains fall between July and September, while the winter 
rains occur from December to March (National Cooperative Soil Survey 1986).

The project area falls within the Lower Sonoran vegetation zone, but has 
been heavily modified by urban and agricultural development.  Prehistoric 
vegetation communities were probably dominated by a bursage-creosote bush 
community, with cacti and paloverde trees in hilly, well-drained areas. 
 Prehistorically, extensive marsh areas may have bordered sections of the 
Salt River, supporting cattail, reeds, bullrush, and arrowweed.  Trees, 
including cottonwood, willow and mesquite, probably grew along the river 
channel.  Prehistoric canals may have been lined with a dense growth of 
shrubs (Yablon and others 1981:8).  Today, there is little to no native 
vegetation present.  Non-native vegetation includes citrus orchards, horse 
pastures, alfalfa, and a few salt cedar trees (Tamarix sp).

Prehistoric fauna probably included abundant small animals such as rabbits, 
ground squirrel, rats, and mice, as well as reptiles such as snakes and 
lizards.  Larger species, including mule deer and coyote, were also 
relatively abundant.  The presence of marsh areas probably attracted large 
numbers of birds and supported a large fish, turtle, and amphibian 
population (Yablon and others 1981).

The soils in the vicinity of the project area consist of  recent alluvium, 
accumulated below the Pleistocene terrace that rises just to the south of 
the project area.  The sediments within the direct project area, however, 
have been heavily disturbed by activities associated with road construction 
and agricultural development.

Cultural Setting

Human occupation of the area began with a long, relatively stable life way 
based on hunting and gathering of native animal and plant foods.  After 
several thousand years of this hunting and gathering adaptation, a culture 
labeled "Hohokam" appeared.  The Hohokam developed a farming economy, and 
this dynamic society grew and flourished for a millennium or more.  When the 
first European explorers arrived in the Salt River Valley, the region was 
largely an uninhabited border zone between the Gila River Pimans to the 
south, and the territory of the Yavapai and Apache to the north and east. 
 Euro-American settlement did not occur until the territory was acquired by 
the United States and the U.S. Army conquered the Yavapai and Apache.

Paleo-Indian and Archaic Eras

The Paleo-Indian period is the oldest firmly documented occupation of the 
New World, dating in the southwestern United States from approximately12,000 
to 8,500 BC.  Paleo-Indians were nomadic hunters of large game, such as 
mammoth and giant bison.  Paleo-Indian sites are rarely found in the project 
vicinity, probably due primarily to difficulty of finding them under deep 
layers of alluvial deposits and their inherent rarity  (Marmaduke and Conway 
1984).

The transition to the Holocene epoch began in Arizona approximately 11,000 
years ago (Hendricks 1985), but there are unresolved debates about the 
nature of major climatic fluctuation in the period between 11,000 to 4,500 
years ago (Antevs 1948, 1955; Martin 1963; Van Devender and Spaulding 1979). 
 The Archaic life way developed during the change from the cooler, moister 
conditions of the Pleistocene epoch to warmer, drier climatic conditions not 
unlike those of today.

Archaic peoples adapted to these climatic changes and the extinction of big 
game animals by exploiting a broad diversity of native plants and hunting 
smaller game such as deer and rabbits.  Cultural remains documenting Archaic 
occupations within the Gila-Salt Basin are uncommon.

Formative Era

Recorded evidence of the prehistoric occupation of the Gila-Salt Basin is 
overwhelmingly dominated by the remains of Hohokam material culture.  The 
Hohokam were village dwelling farmers and artisans, who developed elaborate 
agricultural irrigation networks.  Their sites of occupation are commonly 
marked by copious amounts of broken pottery, some of which is elaborately 
decorated, and other artifacts such as pieces of shell jewelry.

The Hohokam have been the subject of relatively intensive study in the 
Gila-Salt Basin (for example, Crown 1987, 1991; Doyel 1981; Gladwin and 
others 1938; Haury 1976; Wilcox and Sternberg 1983).   There are four (some 
researchers argue for five) major periods in the Hohokam chronology which in 
turn, are divided into a number of phases based on differences in decorated 
ceramics, other artifact styles, architectural styles, and mortuary 
practices.  The Hohokam culture-historical sequence is reasonably well 
dated, except for the initial appearance of the tradition (Dean 1991; Eighmy 
and McGuire 1988; Haury 1976; Plog 1980; Schiffer 1982).  The chronological 
sequence proposed by Dean (1991) is followed here.

Archaeologists have argued for many years about Hohokam origins.  The 
cultural tradition is viewed on the one hand as an indigenous outgrowth of 
the preceding Archaic sequence, or alternatively as the result of 
immigration from Mesoamerica.  Many investigators favor the hypothesis of 
indigenous development (for example, Cable and Doyel 1987; Doelle 1985; Fish 
and others 1985, 1986), and very recent research in the Tucson and Phoenix 
basins document the presence of Late Archaic, ceramic producing, 
agriculturally oriented pit house villages (for example, Mabry and Clark 
1994).

About 15 years ago, researchers began to attempt reconstructions of the far 
flung Hohokam "regional system" (Crown and Judge 1991; Wilcox 1979, 1980). 
 The Hohokam "core" area was viewed as the Gila-Salt Basin, which in turn 
was seen as having been surrounded by a number of peripheral subareas.  To 
the north and east, peripheral areas centered on the Agua Fria River, Verde 
River, and Tonto Basin are defined.  Peripheries south and east of the 
Gila-Salt Basin include the Safford, San Pedro, Tucson Basin, and Upper 
Santa Cruz areas.  To the west and south, peripheral areas include the Gila 
Bend area and the eastern and western subdivisions of the Papagueria. 
 Shifts through time in interaction between the core and peripheral areas 
are the focus on ongoing investigation. The following discussion is limited 
to a consideration of the Gila-Salt Basin.

In the Gila-Salt Basin, the Pioneer period (about AD 300-775) is divided 
into four phases, but an earlier manifestation, the Red Mountain phase, 
which predates AD 300, also has been recognized (Cable and Doyel 1987). 
 This phase was originally recognized by Morris (1969), but only very 
recently has corroborating evidence been recognized.  From the few sites 
that have been investigated, the Red Mountain phase appears similar to the 
terminal Late Archaic sites documented in the Tucson Basin, and its relation 
to subsequent Hohokam phases, as in the Tucson Basin, remains unclear.

The four succeeding Pioneer period Hohokam phases include Vahki (AD 
300-500), Estrella (500-600), Sweetwater (600-700), and Snaketown (700-775) 
(Dean 1991).  Changes primarily in ceramics and architecture signal 
differences among Pioneer period phases.

Phases defined for the Colonial period (about AD 775-975) include Gila Butte 
(775-850) and Santa Cruz (850-975).  It is during the Colonial period that 
domestic architectural units began to be arranged into clusters or courtyard 
groups (Howard 1985; Wilcox and others 1981).  Monumental architecture in 
the form of ballcourts also is recognized at some of the more substantial 
Colonial period villages in the Salt-Gila Basin.

Usually a single phase is associated with the Sedentary period (about 
975-1150).  In the Gila-Salt Basin this is the Sactaon phase. A Santan 
phase, transitional to the Classic period, is sometimes defined.  The 
Sedentary period witnessed further expansion of settlements and canal 
irrigation systems as well as the development of various alternate 
agricultural strategies.  The construction of ballcourts continued and 
another form of monumental architecture, the platform mound, was developed. 
 Hierarchical relationships among Sedentary period sites are recognized in 
the Gila-Salt Basin as well as the Tucson Basin (Doelle and others 1987; 
Gregory 1991; Howard 1987; Wilcox and Sternberg 1983).

The Classic period is divided into two phases in the Gila-Salt Basin.  These 
are the Soho (1150-1300) and Civano (1300-1400) phases.  The Classic period 
contrasts shapely with the pre-Classic periods, exhibiting radical shifts in 
material culture, architecture, mortuary practices, and settlement 
patterning.  Agricultural intensification occurred in the Gila-Salt and 
Tucson basins, and it has been argued that the Tucson Basin increased in 
importance as a regional center at this time (Doelle and Wallace 1991).

A Late Classic or post-Classic occupation, labeled the Polveron phase, has 
been identified at a small number of sites in the Gila-Salt Basin (Crown and 
Sires 1984; Rapp 1996; Sires 1983).  Researchers still are wrestling with 
how to interpret this phase (for example, Chenault 1995; Craig 1995; 
Hackbarth 1995), which is notable for pit houses constructed on top of 
apparently abandoned platform mounds, small clusters of pit house in other 
settings, and high quantities of obsidian debitage.  Red-on-brown decorated 
wares are common as are Salado Polychromes; and Hopi yellow wares, although 
not common, are usually present.

Prehistoric sites and canals have been mapped in the Salt River Valley by 
numerous researchers for several decades.  Figure 2 depicts a summary of 
that information recently compiled by Howard and Huckleberry 1991) for the 
immediate project area.  Two prehistoric canal segments pass through the 
project area, and several large Hohokam village sites are plotted in the 
immediate vicinity of the project area as well.  The larger sites include 
Casa de Omni, Crismon Pueblo, Pueblo Moroni, Las Ruinitas, and site AZ 
U:9:10 (PG).  Howard (1987) has referred to these sites as being part of the 
Lehi canal system community.  Little prior research, other than mapping, has 
been conducted at these sites and canals.

Ethnohistoric Groups and Euro-American Settlers

When Europeans first arrived in the Phoenix area, they did not encounter any 
permanent occupants (Cable 1990).  The basin was near the contested boundary 
of territories of Piman villagers who resided on the Gila River to the 
south, the Yavapais, who lived to the north and west, and the Western 
Apaches who  lived to the northeast and east.  By this time, the Pima had 
also been joined by the Yuman-speaking Maricopa, who migrated up the Gila 
River from their homeland on the lower Colorado River.

Although modern O'odham groups claim affinity with the Hohokam, as do other 
groups such as the Hopi, the relationship between these ethnohistoric groups 
and the preceding Hohokam is more difficult to demonstrate archaeologically. 
Recent re-examination of O'odham and Hopi oral traditions may provide the 
basis for beginning to better understand the very late prehistoric and 
protohistoric periods (Teague 1993).  The presence of the Hohokam is well 
documented by archaeological evidence up to about AD 1400.  Physical 
evidence of subsequent periods is rare, however, and the ethnohistoric 
groups are difficult to recognize archaeologically.

No settlement of the Salt River Valley was ever made during the eras of 
Spanish and Mexican rule of the region.  The United States acquired the 
territory in 1848 under the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo at the 
conclusion of the War with Mexico.  In 1865 Fort McDowell (originally known 
as Camp Verde, and then Camp McDowell) was established approximately 15 
miles northeast of the project area near the confluence of the Salt and 
Verde rivers.  This military installation "controlled" the Yavapais and 
Apaches who resisted Euro-American takeover of their territories and paved 
the way for the first non-Native settlement in the Salt River Valley.

Mormon colonists arrived in the area in the late 1870s.  Their first 
settlement, Utahville, soon failed, but another community, laid out nearby, 
and remains known today as Lehi (Granger 1983).  Subsequent Mormon 
settlement in the community of Mesa soon grew to overshadow Lehi.  The 
Mormon colonists, like the  Hohokam before, survived by developing 
irrigation agricultural systems.

Goals and Organization of the Testing Plan

The primary goal of this testing plan is to assist MCDOT in complying with 
the Arizona Antiquities Act. The compliance strategy is based on determining 
whether significant archaeological deposits and features are present within 
the project area, and if so, assessing the potential impacts of the proposed 
road construction.

Figure 2  Project Area

The next section of the plan outlines our research perspective, and is 
followed by a discussion of proposed  background research, fieldwork, 
analysis, and reporting strategies.  A proposed schedule is then outlined, 
along with an estimated level of effort.  Key study team personnel are then 
identified.  Cited references are listed at the end of the plan.