Message #392:
From: AzTeC SW Archaeology SIG
To: "'Matthias Giessler'" 
Subject: Heritage Times Volume 7 Number 1
Date: Mon, 02 Dec 1996 08:22:56 -0700
Encoding: MIME-Version: 1.0



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  HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH| Volume 7: Number 1  November 23, 1996 |HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH
  

IN THIS ISSUE:      Editor's Corner .....................   
                    Who pays for Fire? ..................  2
                    Partners in Wisconsin ...............  4
                    PIT News ............................  6
                    Training ............................  9
                    Meetings ............................ 10
                    Info Requests ....................... 11
                    Other News and Notes ................ 12
                    Awards .............................. 16
  
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Editor's Corner:
W.Reed:R04F02A

It was Friday the 13th, September 13th, at eight o'clock in the
evening when I answered a phone call from the local BLM Area
Archeologist.In the weeks that followed I had several occasions
to wonder what would have been different if I had simply said I
was busy, but no, I said I would attend a meeting the next
morning and so began a 16 day oddessey that set me back by at
least a month and a half.

It was the aftermath of the 8th Street Fire, a fire that burned
about 14,000 acres in the drainages immediately above the city.
In 1959 a similar situation produced catastrophic flooding in the
city streets.The anxiety level was predictably off the scale.
Something had to be done to prevent the floods and the
archeologists were identified as one potential barrier to
effective and timely response.

On that Saturday I gathered up a crew and we went to work on
Sunday.Monday afternoon the crews ran into an old artillery
range impact zone -- an area that contained live rounds of 75mm
ordnance from National Guard exercises in the 1920s and 30s.To
make matters worse, the impact zone was in the area proposed for
treatment with contour trenching by heavy equipment.

After a quick lesson from the Air Force Explosives and Ordnance
Disposal team, we went to work to identify the areal extent of
the impact zone.If you ever have a chance to work with live
ordnance hazards, count it as a wonderful opportunity to
highlight the worth of archeological survey!We were suddenly ingreat demand and no one wanted to work an area that had not been
cleared by the archeologists.

The ordnance episode attacted the media in droves -- TV, radio,
and print reporters were eager for this story.We managed to get
several good messages out regarding the history of the burned
area and the purposes of archeological survey.

Some of you heard the story that aired on NPR and on the Native
News networks.That story came out of a telephone interview with
a reporter who did not tell me he was taping our conversation.
In response to a question about Shoshone or Paiute activity in
the area, I said we had found one projectile point, an arrowhead,
that was probably Shoshonean.I never heard the broadcast
version but friends tell me that arrowhead was reported as the
first and only Shoshone arrowhead ever found.I do love the way
reporters work a story.

In fact, the only "first" in this project and perhaps the
highpoint of this project was the disposal of a high explosive
round in the middle of a historic property.The ordnance was
determined to be too sensitive to move, so the disposal team
wired it up with C4 and blew it right there in the middle of the
site.Archeology is seldom produces such earthshattering
results!I still haven't decided how to word the final report of
this event.

Things have quieted down now.The report is almost finished and
the rehabilitation effort is almost complete.The recent rains
have been corralled by straw bale check dams and contour
trenches.Now it seems time to take a vacation, but first here's
the rest of the Times.

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Who pays for fire associated damages to heritage sites?
J.Keyser:R06C

Editor's note: In the weeks following this years series of major fires, I
received a number of questions regarding damages to historic properties.Jim
Keyser responded with a bit of research and an official letter containing the
following guidance has been issued by Region 6.

There have been three main questions asked regarding what
benefitting function pays for assessing and mitigating effects to
heritage properties following a wildfire.These are:

1.Who pays to protect heritage sites or to assess and mitigate
the impacts to heritage sites which will be damaged by fire
emergency rehabilitation actions?
ANSWER:If the rehabilitation effort will damage a site, either
protection or mitigation of effect is paid by the rehabilitation
funds as a benefitting function.This could include any type of
physical work done on a site, or the potential for increased
erosion on a site as a result of the installation of erosion
control devices adjacent to it.It might also include assessment
of the likelihood of ARPA violations by the rehabilitation crews
themselves, if the presence of artifacts and the size and extent
of supervision of rehabilitation crews warranted an ARPA
condition assessment.

2.Who pays to assess and mitigate the impacts on heritage sites
from fire suppression actions?These actions could include
damage caused by hand or mechanical equipment.Who pays in the
situation where a burnout resulted in damage to an historic site?

ANSWER:If the site was damaged by fire suppression actions
includingexcavation by hand or mechanical equipment,
application of retardant, or any combination of these, mitigation
of effect is paid by Fire Suppression as the benefitting
function.Burnouts are considered a suppression activity and use
of Fire Suppression funds is proper for work to mitigate the
effects of the suppression activity as long as action is taken
promptly to validate that these effects are a part of the
suppression effort.

3.Who pays to assess and mitigate the impacts on heritage sites
caused by the wildfire itself?These impacts could include
damage to archaeological sites or historic structures and
potential looting of artifacts exposed by the fire.The
assessments could include re-evaluating the National Register of
Historic Places status of a site that burned, and condition
assessments for potential damage from erosion resulting after the
fire.

ANSWER:Program dollars (NFHR funds) would pay to assess and
mitigate the impacts on heritage sites caused by the wildfire
itself.If the damage doesn't fit #1 or #2, then heritage funds
would finance the work.

Further editor's notes: The official letter emphasizes that since different
funds can be used to pay for such damage, we need to be very careful in
determining the cause of the damage to a heritage property.We are also
reminded that there may be salvage timber sales in some burned areas, and that
inventories needed for these sales and mitigation of impacts caused by timber
activity will charged to the timber sale as the benefitting function.

There are still a number of difficult points to be addressed, the most vexing
of which is about damages to sites that might have been protected during the
fire: who pays for the assessment of damages or site stabilization when the
fire suppression effort simply failed to protect a site?This question and
others about the treatment of heritage resources in the Burned Area Emergency
Rehabilitation efforts will be addressed by a national task force during this
winter.------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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PARTNERS 'R' US: Wisconsin Forests and the State Working Together
C.Stiles:R09F06A

With massive changes taking place in state and federal agencies,
everyone is looking toward partnerships to help accomplish their
goals and responsibilities.In January 1992, the Nicolet NF
entered into a unique partnership with the Wisconsin State
Historical Society.This partnership established the State
Region 2 Archaeology Center, serving five northeastern counties.
Approximately 90% of the Nicolet NF falls within this region.
The Center stores regional records, maps and reports, and
provides assistance to landowners and organizations on all lands
within the regional boundaries, except National Forest lands.

Through state and federal law, most publicly funded or licensed
development projects are preceded by archaeological investigation
and known sites on public lands are monitored.However, little
survey has been done on private lands and the potential for site
destruction through ignorance is great. The state regional
centers are designed to address this issue.

The goals of the program are: 1) to identify and record new sites
using systematic survey methods and local landowner/informant
data; 2) to introduce and/or promote identification and
preservation of archaeological and historical sites on private,
tribal, state and county lands through public participation and
educational programs; 3) to develop long-range planning documents
to help public agencies and private landowners with sites on
their lands.

The State Region 2 Archaeology Center is open to public inquires.
The Center encourages landowners to contact the office prior to
developing their property.Several inquires from state and
county offices have also resulted in sites recorded on public
property. The Center is establishing a friendly presence in the
region, an office where individuals can come for information
(except site locations) and advice.

The State funds equipment purchases, travel expenses and
approximately four months a year of an archaeologist's time. The
Forest provides a match of facility space and some operating
expenses.The Center relies heavily on volunteers in a variety
of areas, including field labor and water vehicle transportation.

The following activities represent highlights of the program's
first four years:

 Through this program and other state grants, the Center has
 sponsored archaeological survey in a representative chain of
 lakes.In a two year period, eight of the fourteen lakes in the chain were investigated.Twenty-six new sites were
 recorded and seven previously recorded sites were revisited.
 This project produced baseline data that can be used when
 planning Forest and State activities on similar lake areas.

 The Center is producing study units which are regionwide
 overviews of particular cultural time periods.These units
 evaluate the work done up to that date and suggest guidelines
 for future work. In addition, the units can be reworked into a
 National Register of Historic Places multi-property thematic
 nominations, which has been done with a unit on the historic
 logging industry.

 The Center has conducted adult and school-age educational
 programs to promote preservation of the region's
 archaeological heritage. Talks, displays and reenactments have
 been presented to local historical societies, schools, state
 parks and tribal organizations.

 A partnership project between the Center and the Lac Du
 Flambeau Chippewa Band produced the location of a fur trade
 post associated with the historic Chippewa village on the
 reservation. While the post was the archaeological goal, the
 project was conducted with tribal member participation in
 archival research as well as archaeological field survey.

How can this type of program possibly benefit the National
Forests? Cost is one benefit since the state funds part of a
permanent position. There are many others:

 In 1994, the Nicolet and Chequamegon National Forests combined
 operations and programs. Research and planning projects need
 now to consider the varied landscapes in both National
 Forests. State Region 2 includes area between the two Forests
 and can fill the data gap in northeastern Wisconsin. By
 combining the new data with that already gathered from the
 Forests, we can begin to describe broad based patterns for
 cultural time periods in the north woods. 

 The State Region 2 Archaeology Program is able to conduct
 research that could not be done with limited forest budgets
 and personnel. For example, the cultural study units are
 planning documents for both future archaeological projects,
 and for overall agency planning. Thematic nominations which
 result from the units make it easier for the Forests to
 nominate individual sites.

Public programs solidify National Forest relationships with their
neighbor communities. Archaeological programs are fun and appeal
to people of all ages, as the Passport In Time programs prove
every year. The partnership allows the Forests to increase the
number of programs offered.
The Forests have given archaeological assistance to neighboring
Indian tribes for many years, especially in the area of Heritage
program development.Adding the Center as a partner in this
endeavor has allowed the Forests to strengthen these
relationships.

In sum, at a time when budgets and positions are shrinking,
partnerships such as this one are productive, efficient, and can
initiate innovative projects.Combining federal and state
objectives can produce research and public programs not
necessarily possible in one agency alone.

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PIT News:

Ohio PIT wins SHPO award!
Jill Osborn:R04F02A

The Wayne National Forest is the recipient of the 1996 Ohio
Historic Preservation Office Award for restoring the historic
Payne Family Cemetery.Congratulations to Ann Cramer, the
project lead, Eurial Turner, Forest Supervisor, and Karen Hughes,
Public Affairs Officer, for another recognition of the
outstanding public service they provided through this project!
Because of her work with the community of New Straitsville and
this project, Ann was also the winner of Region 9's Windows on
the Past award this year.Way to go Wayne National Forest!!!

Summary of Passport in Time activities -- Ottawa National Forest, 1996
Mark Hill:R09F07A

Thanks to over thirty volunteers and the support and assistance
of personnel at the Kenton and Bergland districts, the heritage
program has completed two more productive and interesting
Passport In Time projects.This is the Ottawa's eighth year of
participation in the PIT program, and this summer marked the
completion of our fifteenth PIT project.

We use PIT as a means of accomplishing much needed resource
management tasks, as well as to meet our public education
requirements and to provide a unique recreation experience.The
return on these projects is exceptional.Between 1991 and 1996,
for example, 230 PIT volunteers have contributed 9353 hours to
projects on the Ottawa.This is the equivalent of nearly S87,000
of contributed labor. 

This summer, our first PIT project took place at the Duck Lake
site on the Kenton District.Twenty eight volunteers worked with
Ottawa heritage program personnel to conduct test excavations at
this prehistoric site that contained evidence of occupation,
stone tool use and production, and the manufacture of copper
tools.
Prehistoric sites associated with copper production and use are a
highly endangered resource.Some of the earliest metal working
in the world occurred here in the Lake Superior region at least
8,000 years ago.For thousands of years, copper from this region
was made into tools and ornaments and traded all over eastern
North America.Yet few sites associated with copper production
have been formally investigated on the mainland.Many more sites
have been destroyed by historic copper mining, and more recently
by amateur and commercial metal detector users illegally looking
for artifacts and float copper for collection or sale.
Collectors equipped with metal detectors are rapidly destroying
these sites both on and off the Ottawa National Forest.

Our work at the Duck Lake site had two broad objectives; 1) to
begin to study these rapidly disappearing sites, and 2) by better
understanding these sites, to begin to develop means to identify,
manage, and protect prehistoric copper sites on the Ottawa
National Forest.During the two week project we made progress
toward both objectives.Eleven one meter by one meter excavation
units were opened on site, and they revealed stone tools, worked
copper, copper preforms, copper tools, and one possible
fire-hearth.Charcoal was recovered for radiocarbon dating
purposes, soil samples were taken to study the remains of plants
that grew on site or were used by the occupants, and one
projectile point (spear point) helps to tie the occupation of the
site to known cultural groups.Most of the stone from which
stone tools were made appears to have been imported from
southwest Wisconsin.The occupants of the site may have
travelled from southern Wisconsin, or possibly traded with people
to the south to obtain these non-local materials.The copper
tools, worked copper, and copper preforms will help us begin to
understand the techniques and objectives that people used in this
early metal working technology.

A great deal of analysis is still required to complete this
study.Field work is just the tip of the iceberg, materials
still need to be washed, cataloged, measured, weighed and
analyzed.Typically this work has been difficult for us to
accomplish due to other demands on our time.This year, we plan
to follow through by conducting a PIT project in December to
complete at least the washing and cataloging activities.

We also heard from a number of visitors to the site about the
possible locations of additional sites.Our current model of
site locations would likely fail to predict these type of sites,
and collectors know more about their locations than we do.As we
learn about new sites from informants we can begin to understand
the settings that they are likely to occupy and improve our
inventory methods, and we can begin to apply protection
strategies to these endangered (and often damaged) resources.

Our second PIT project involved a return to the Norwich Mine site
on the Bergland District.This site, actually four separate
mines and two towns, is one of the premier historic sites of theOttawa National Forest.Passport in Time projects have been
conducted here since 1991, and Michigan Technological University
has been a partner in this work since 1993.To date, work at
this site has led to improved management strategies for mining
related sites forest-wide, on-site interpretive plans, and
pioneering research into mining archaeology that has received
attention world-wide.

No funds were available for the MTU partnership this year, yet
MTU faculty and students still worked with Ottawa heritage
personnel and eight PIT volunteers.Work this summer was
essentially a follow-up of last years project, with the very
limited goal of understanding the relationship of two preserved
"buddles" at the 1851-1858 stamp mill on the Ohio Trap Rock
component of the site.These buddles are large circular features
with sloping wooden floors that used gravity to help separate
copper from sand after the ore was crushed in the stamp mill.
These are the only two circular "buddles" known in North America
and they represent the importation of state-of-the-art
ore-processing technology from Cornwall during the 1850's.

A truly international crew and some exciting environmental
research added to this years experience.We had people from the
US, Canada, Denmark, Wales and England all working together
during the one week project.Dr. Timothy Mighall of Coventry
University in England decided to vacation in the States this year
so he could visit the site to collect a series of sediment cores
and analyze the environmental effects of mining.He has been
conducting research into the effects of bronze age, roman,
medieval and historic mining on the environment in England, Wales
and Ireland.For example, he has found indications that Bronze
Age miners of 3,500 years ago managed their timber resources to
ensure a steady supply of lumber and fuel, while historic miners
essentially clearcut their environment and depleted the
resources.

We collected sediment cores from ponds that were constructed on
site in the 1850's, as well as from a nearby peat bog.Dr.
Mighall will use these to study pollen, charcoal, and heavy metal
deposition and will provide a detailed record of species
composition over perhaps as many as a few thousand years.We
will be able to see the immediate and long-term effect of mining
and settlement in the pollen, charcoal and heavy metal record
represented in these cores.

Both of these interesting and profitable projects would not have
been possible without the support and assistance of district
personnel.We want to thank the people at Kenton and Bergland
for their support, participation, interest, and tolerance!You
have all helped to provide a rewarding experience for our
volunteers, as well as supported two projects that will have
lasting influence on our management of heritage resources on the
Ottawa National Forest.
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TRAINING:



Tentative FY97 Training Schedule
Archaeological Resource Protection Act Training Course
Federal Law Enforcement Training Center


Date Location Host Agency

Dec 9 - 13 Phoenix, ArizonaBIA
Jan 27 - 31Pensacola, FloridaNPS
Feb 24 - 28Nashville, TennesseeTVA
Mar 24 - 28Hilo, Hawaii NPS
Apr 21 - 25Sacramento, CaliforniaFS
May 12 - 16Juneau, Alaska BIA
Sept 15 - 19 Boston, Massachusetts NPS

The 40-hour FLETC ARPA "export" course is open to all federal
employees although participation is somewhat contingent on the
individual training needs of this hosting agency or agency unit.
Also note the Forest Service sponsored course in Sacramento
scheduled for late April (highlighted above).Dates and training
locations are tentative and may change.For information about
the course and this year's training schedule, please contact
FLETC course instructor Martin McAllister at (406) 728-7195. 

Heritage Management at the R8/R9 University:
Sandra Forney:R09A

The following is a condensed listing of topics to be covered in the courses
offered by the R8/R9 University -- February 3rd through 7th.Contact Sandi
for more info.Course registration is open until December 6th.

HERITAGE MANAGEMENT (NR 480)

Field Trip to the Illinois State Museum for a tour of their
curation facility. Discussions will focus on Federal Curation
Regulations, development of curation agreements, and refresher
sessions in material culture identification and analysis.
 Some selected topics:
 Mike Wiant: Overall Curation Process
 Robert Warren: Archeological Site File and GIS Applications
 Dr. Ed Hajik: Geomorphological Studies
 Dr. Terry Martin: Faunal Analysis
 Dr. John Walthal: Identification and analysis of regional
 stoneware and eighteenth and early nineteenth century
 earthenwares.

Individual topic presentations on February 4th:

Studies in Paleoethnobotany-Kathryn C. Egan, Nicolet College, WI
Historic artifact analysis - Mary McCorvie, Shawnee NF, IL, R9
Prehistoric rock art - Mark J. Wagner, SIU Carbondale
Shipwrecks of the Great Lakes - Thomas Emerson, Illinois
Transportation and Archaeological Research Program
The impact of steamboats on the destruction of 18th century
French colonial sites, the archaeology of the American Bottom -
Terry Norris, Corps of Engineers, St. Louis District
Forest Plan Revision - Alan Dorian, Kisatchie NF, LA, R8
Historic Architecture - Leah Rogers, Archeological Consultant, IA
Civil War sites - Hunter Lesser, Archeological Consultant, WV
Current Research - Patty Jo Watson, Washington University, St.
Louis, MO

Presentations for February 5th:

Archaeological Resources Protection Act - Marcia Abrams, OGC, R5
Heritage Appeal Issues - Vince Vukelich, OGC, R9

Field Trip to Cahokia Mounds Archaeological Site - William
Iseminger 

Presentations for February 6th:

Heritage Information Data System - Teri Liestman, R2 Heritage,
Bill Disbrow and Richard Adams, R2 Info Resources
Program Development and Budget: the process and where Heritage
fits in - Ann Loose, WO-PD&B 
Dolly Copp Pavilion Restoration and Interpretation- Nita
Williams, White Mountain NF, NH, R9

Field Trip to NPS St. Louis Arch/Museum of Westward Expansion.

NAGPRA course to be presented on Friday, February 7th

Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act - Frank
Wozniak, R3

Tribal Government Relations - Bob Tippeconnic, WO

 
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MEETINGS:

Society for Historical and Underwater Archaeology

The SHA will hold its annual meeting at the Marriott Bayfront,
Corpus Christi TX, January 8-12, 1997. Contact Dr. David
Carlson, Program Coordinator, Anthropology Dept, Texas A&M

University, College Station, TX 77843-4352.409-847-9248; FAX
409-845-4070e-mail: sha97@tam2000.tamu.edu
American Society for Environmental History

The biennial meeting of the American Society for Environmental
History will be meeting in Baltimore, MD, on March 5-9, 1997.
The theme for the meeting is "Government, Science, and the
Environment."The announcement in the journal "Environmental
History" goes on to state:Papers and session proposals that
address the role of government and/or science in environmental
affairs should be postmarked no later than 1 August 1996.For
details, contact Jeffrey Stine, National Museum of American
History, MRC 629, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
20560; FAX (202) 357-4256


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INFO REQUESTS:

Concessionaires and Historic Sites Management:
Diane Lehman Turck:R06F06D06A

For various reasons, our Rec Dept. is going to put a number of
campgrounds under concession.Two of these are located in the
Cloud Cap/Tilly Jane National Historic District and are
contributing factors.Two others are unevaluated campgrounds
within the Barlow Rd. National Historic District.Do you have
any examples of similar situations?I would like to clearly
inform potential bidders in the prospectus, and concessionaires
in the eventual contract of the requirements and limitations
involved in managing these campgrounds before problems arise.In
addition, several campgrounds are near prehistoric sites.Are
there examples expressing certain limitations and guidelines on
such campgrounds that would be different from a regular
concession?Thanks for your time, Diane

Subxeric Environments:
Scot Keith:R08F07D05A

I am doing research for my thesis on archaeological sites located
within a particular ecosystem (not only) on the Chickasawhay RD
of the DeSoto NF here in southeast Mississippi.This ecosystem
is classified as "Subxeric Longleaf Pine-Saw Palmetto Woodland"
and occurs in the Gulf coastal plain, oftentimes in small-acreage
patches.These areas are characterized by deep white sands, a
sparse groundcover of mosses and lichens, and scrub oaks situated
among widely spaced longleaf pines.Some diagnostic plant
species include prickly pear cacti, saw palmetto, yaupon holly,
sandhill milkweed, blueberry, and dogwood.I've located several
interesting large multicomponent sites in one such 200 acre area,
termed the Gopher Farm due to the abundance of gopher tortoises.
I'm seeking information concerning the ecology, geoarchaeology,
and any comparative data regarding these ecosystems.If you have
any info, I can be contacted at the above DG address or at (601)
428-0594.Thanks for your help. 

Contract Examples:
W.Reed:R04F02A

I am continuing to collect examples of contracts and scopes of
work for every imaginable Heritage activity.My examples are
getting old.If you have recently developed or used a contract
that you think is exemplary, please send me a copy!Preferably
an electronic copy so that I can file it in the electronic
archives for future distribution.And if you are contemplating a
contract project, please do not hesitate to ask -- it may take a
while to sort through the electronic archives but I bet it is
faster than starting from scratch.Thanks!

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OTHER NEWS AND NOTES:

HUMAN REMAINS FOUND IN ALASKA REPORTED TO BE 9,730 YEARS OLD

A human jaw bone, recovered from a cave on northern Prince of
Wales Island in Alaska's Tongass National Forest in early July
1996, has been radiocarbon dated at 9,730 +/- 60 years before
present."To my knowledge, these are the oldest reliably dated
human remains ever found in Alaska", says Dr. James Dixon,
curator of archaeology at the Denver Museum of Natural History,
where the bones and artifacts are currently being studied.A
tiny sample of bone from a break in the chin was treated by Dr.
Thomas Stafford, Director of the Laboratory for Accelerator
Radiocarbon Research at the University of Colorado, Boulder,
before being submitted for dating to the Lawrence Livermore
National Laboratory's Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry.
Stafford feels an excellent sample was obtained from the jaw bone
and that this is a very reliable date.

The cave, located in a remote area of southeast Alaska, was
discovered in 1993 by cavers working with the Tongass Cave
Project.During careful mapping of the passages, Kevin Allred
noted bear bones lying on the surface near the cave mouth.The
bones were left in place until 1994 when Dr. Timothy Heaton, a
paleontologist with the University of South Dakota,
Vermillion,was taken to the cave and collected two bear bones
from eroding surface sediments in two different chambers.Heaton
continued his investigations in 1995 and in 1996, accompanied by
Fred Grady, preparator with the Smithsonian Institution, and
supported by a grant from the National Geographic Society, spent
two weeks carefully excavating a sample of the cave sediments.
The team has recovered bear bones dating to 41,600 as well as
seal bones dating to the peak of the ice age, 17,565 years ago.
Seven other species of animals, no longer living on the island,have been discovered."This cave has delivered one
record-setting find after another," Heaton said.It was not
until the last week of excavations in 1996 that the first
evidence of human presence in the cave was discovered.In total,
three artifacts (a stone spear point, a pointed bone tool, and a
notched piece of bone) and five major skeletal elements (a lower
jaw with teeth, three vertebrae, and a pelvis fragment showing
signs of carnivore chewing) were found.As soon as the
mud-covered bones were recognized as human, excavations were
halted.

Immediately after discovery of the human skeletal material Terry
Fifield, archaeologist with the Tongass National Forest on Prince
of Wales Island, began consultation, under the terms of the
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, with the
tribal governments of Klawock, Craig, Hydaburg, and Kake to
identify concerns and decide how to proceed.Both the Klawock
Cooperative Association and the Craig Community Association
passed resolutions supporting the analysis of the human bones and
artifacts and agreeing to further excavations provided that the
tribes were notified in advance of any new discoveries and public
announcements.Both councils expressed some discomfort with
analysis of the human bones and discussed their concern that
increasing public interest in the caves of southeast Alaska poses
a threat to sacred sites of the Tlingit and Haida people.
However, in the end, both councils decided the potential to gain
knowledge about some of their earliest ancestors was
overwhelming.

The artifacts and human bones were sent to Dr. James Dixon at the
Denver Museum of Natural History.Dr. Dixon was a professor at
the University of Alaska Fairbanks and is now curator of
archaeology at the Denver Museum.For the past six years he and
other researchers have been searching the caves of southeast
Alaska for archaeological evidence that might indicate that
humans first settled the Americas with the use of boats along the
northwest coast of North America.The museum plans to continue
its support of Dixon's research in southeast Alaska as this
discovery develops."I was delighted when we received the
results of the radiocarbon analysis" said Dixon.He went on to
say, "this may be just the tip of the iceberg.Future
discoveries could be even older.It is my belief that some of
the oldest archaeological remains preserved in North America will
be found in the caves of southeast Alaska.This, and other
discoveries, are critical to understanding when humans first came
to the Americas, what the environment was like, and what their
lives were like at that time.This discovery provides exciting
new opportunities to scientifically demonstrate the long human
occupation of southeast Alaska and to illuminate the rich
cultural past of its people."

Further analysis of the bones and artifacts (radiocarbon dating,
physical anthropological study, and other analyses) will be
conducted.Excavation, both outside and inside the cave, isplanned over the next few years.However, scientists, managers,
and tribal members alike are concerned about the security of the
cave.The fine, water-saturated silts that make up the cave
floor are very vulnerable to damage, and the water soaked bones
and other organic materials contained in those silts are easily
crushed.Jim Baichtal, geologist with the Ketchikan Area of the
Tongass National Forest, stresses that the surfaces in these
caves may not have been walked on by humans for millennia.When
we enter these sites for the first time we are altering, or even
destroying, the accumulated record of thousands of years of
environmental change in that area.Baichtal states, "These
discoveries confirm the antiquity of the deposits within the
caves.As explorers and researchers, we must recognize the
potential importance of the paleoecological information contained
in the sediments of the cave's floor and be careful with our
disturbance.We all must take responsibility for protection of
that information and what may be learned from it."

"We have seen a truly gratifying spirit of cooperation between
tribal governments, federal agencies, universities, and
scientists during the initial stages of this discovery," says
Fifield."In many ways this is a model of how we can work
together on important concerns.We are optimistic that, as this
discovery unfolds, we will continue to cooperate, sharing
information and learning about the earliest beginnings of culture
in southeast Alaska."

Contact:Thorne Bay Ranger District, Tongass National Forest,
Terry Fifield, (907) 826-3271.

An old Executive Order surfaces in the NEPA realm:

Executive Order 12898, issued in 1994, ordered federal agencies
to identify and address the issue of environmental justice, ie.
adverse human health and environmental effects of agency programs
that disproportionately impact minority and low income
populations.To date, questions of environmental justice have
typically dealt with pollution or waste being discharged or
dumped in minority or poor neighborhoods, and thus have not
really touched upon Forest Service activities.However, many
Forest Service projects do affect Native Americans, and could
potentially affect other populations of concern.For example,
the Executive Order specifically directs agencies to consider
patterns of subsistence hunting and fishing when an agency action
may affect fish or wildlife.

CEQ and USDA will be providing guidance on how to implement this
order.In the meantime, we can ensure we're adequately
addressing the issue of environmental justice in NEPA analysis by
looking for minority or poor communities that may be affected by
the agency action; ensuring that scoping will reach those
communities; considering the action's effects on such
communities; and documenting the analysis.The following stepsmay be helpful.(You're probably already doing most of these
steps, but just without tying them to environmental justice.)

-Consider the composition of the affected community to see if
 there may be a disproportionate effect on minority or poor
 communities.

-Consider cultural and economic factors that may amplify
 effects, e.g., the sensitivity of the community to specific
 impacts.

-The following conditions may indicate a disproportionate
 adverse effect on the community: 

 Environmental quality indicators show greater damage to
 environments surrounding the community than to comparable
 environments surrounding the general public.These indicators
 include such things as air and water quality, land use
 restrictions, and ecosystem productivity.

 Cultural, economic, or natural resources have been damaged or
 destroyed so that they no longer provide customary benefits to
 the community.

 Resource damage is not remediated in the same manner as for
 similar resources relied upon by the general population.

-Public involvement is vital; work to overcome barriers that
 might inhibit full community involvement.For example, if
 members of the community are limited-English speakers, make
 sure they still have the chance to give you input: use
 translators, accept verbal comments or comments recorded on
 audio or video tape, and use clear, non-technical language in
 materials you distribute.

-You should already be contacting any potentially interested
 Indian tribes as part of scoping.Look for issues such as
 tribal sovereignty, natural and cultural resources, and tribal
 cultural practices.

-If you identify a disproportionate effect on a minority or
 poor community, that does not necessarily preclude the agency
 action.However, alternatives, mitigation measures, and
 preferences expressed by the affected community become more
 important.

-An environmental impact that is not significant does not
 become significant merely because it affects a minority or
 poor community.

-There is no need to add separate chapters or sections to
 environmental documents to address environmental justice.
In summary, look for minority or poor communities that could be
affected by agency action; make sure scoping is sufficient to
reach such communities; consider the effects of agency action on
such communities; and document that analysis.

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AWARDS:

At the recently completed National Interpretive Association
meetings held in Billings, MT, the Gifford Pinchot Award for
excellence in interpretation was presented to Robert Leonard,
Heritage specialist on the Fishlake National Forest, Utah.We
congratulate Bob on his fine work (this is not the first time we
have witnessed Bob's excellent interpretive work - he put
together the original "Windows On The Past" video).Here is the
text from the awards announcement.

USDA FOREST SERVICE
GIFFORD PINCHOT EXCELLENCE IN INTERPRETATION AWARDS

Congratulations to Robert Leonard, Forest Archeologist, Fishlake
National Forest, Intermountain Region, Richfield, Utah, the
recipient of the 1996 Gifford Pinchot Excellence in
Interpretation Award.This is the fourth year that the National
Award has been presented at a joint federal agency ceremony
during the National Association for Interpretation Workshop.The
Gifford Pinchot Excellence in Interpretation Award recognizes the
best contributions in interpretation within the USDA Forest
Service.Gifford Pinchot was the first chief of the Forest
Service and dedicated to the conservation of our natural
resources.Nominees for this award are evaluated on exceptional
achievements in natural and heritage resource interpretation
programs, activities, materials, or facilities that increase "the
understanding, appreciation, and involvement of visitors in
National Forest programs."As the Forest Service's interpretive
program continues to grow in importance and influence, it is very
appropriate that we celebrate the excellence of the people who
exemplify these criteria.Robert Leonard developed partnerships
with Piute County economic development programs and used Passport
in Time projects to conserve and interpret the historic Bullion
Canyon Gold District.Bob researched, designed and built a
Miners' Park with historic displays.He also developed a driving
tour for the road in the bottom of the canyon and seven miles of
historic foot and horse track have been opened in the upper
canyon.Bob was the catalyst for the preservation and
interpretation of Fremont Indian (AD. 400 - 1250) pictographs and
archeological sites in the new Fremont Indian State Park.Bob
prepared three major displays for the State Park's visitor center
which include a full-sized pithouse, a life-sized Fremont woman
with a forensically reconstructed face, and the introductory
video shown in the main theater he worked with other Utah StateParks and, and in one such effort, built a display dedicated to
Walkara, "The West's Greatest Horse Thief," at the Utah
Territorial Statehouse in Fillmore.Bob has also funded through
grants the purchase and installation of three 1610 AM radio
transmitters along the Old Spanish Trail, in Fremont Indian State
Park, and in the Fishlake Basin Recreation Area.With all of
these projects Bob has provided the public with a vicarious feel
for the drama and adventure of Utah's past.

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Deadlines ... Friday, December 13th for the Christmas issue!

Details ... Articles will be accepted and considered in the order
 received.Articles which present major editing challenges
 will be the last published!Articles concerning sensitive
 issues may require higher level review (OGC).Job
 announcements will be forwarded through the Heritage Workforce
 mailing list as soon as I can process my inbox.Whenever
 possible, specific information requests will be forwarded to
 people I know can answer the question.Address info: e-mail
 can be sent to /s=w.reed/ou1=r04f02a@mhs-fswa.attmail.com or
 sondage@aol.com.FAX users can send to 208-364-4111; FTS 2000
 Mail users can reach me at !A11R4AFMRNO.Until next issue ...
 -= Will =-