Message #253: From: AzTeC SW Archaeology SIG To: "'Matthias Giessler'" Subject: Bow and Arrow in the American Southwest Date: Sat, 10 Aug 96 13:33:00 MST Encoding: 68 TEXT >>>From: email@example.com (Museo de Arte Precolombino) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Re: Bow and arrow in the Americas Date: Sat, 10 Aug 96 13:52 SAT. Dear friends: This is my first message to the group and I want to check whether there is interest in American and hunter-gatherer archaeology issues among those of you "out there". I also want to pose a problem that seems particularly well-suited for a global discussion on INTERNET...As far as I know, there is no rigourous discussion in print on the issue, but I have heard several times about the possibility of an independent invention of the bow and arrow in different places of the Americas. I understand that the bow and arrow show up in Southern Patagonia pretty early in time (4000 BP), while they are not known from the present US territory before our Era. Is that correct? Does any one has good dates on bow and arrow in specific North American sites? What about other parts of the Americas? Any information and/or ideas are welcome!! Best wishes, Francisco Mena, Museo Chileno de Arte Precolombino, Santiago de Chile. email@example.com >>> REPLY From: Brian Kenny firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.swanet.org/bkenny.html. Regarding the American Southwest, I recently enjoyed two presentations discussing the introduction of the bow and arrow. Both discussions focused on Anasazi-related societies in the American Southwest somewhere during the centuries AD 1200-1400. Steven A. LeBlanc made a presentation at the Southwest Symposium this last February. [ See: Article #183: "Southwest Symposium, at ASU, Feb 9-10, 1996." / Steven LeBlanc can be found at http://www.questorsys.com/about_qs.html ]. In his presentation, LeBlanc described endemic warfare in the American Southwest, and the aggregation of village populations into large central places. Smaller villages were abandoned and large villages became spaced in a regular fashion in the Upper Little Colorado River drainage and Zuni regions of East Central Arizona and West central New Mexico. LeBlanc discussed at length the introduction of the bow and arrow to the Southwest, and the archaeological evidence for the timing of it's introduction (changes in point styles in chronometrically well-dated (and relatively-dated) archaeological contexts). LeBlanc posited that settlement pattern changes in this region at this time were a result of people fighting over resources, endemic warfare, and the intoduction of a new weapons system -- the recurved bow and arrow. David Wilcox made a brief presentation at the Prescott Archaeology Conference this last May. [ See: Prescott Archaeology Conference, May 10-11, 1996 / David Wilcox is the Curator of Archaeology at the Museum of Northern Arizona, Route 4, Box 720, 3001 Fort Valley Road, Flagstaff AZ 86001. Phone (520) 774-5213 / FAX (520) 774-1527 ]. Wilcox described "defensive" sites, and the general nature of Cohonina Culture sites west of Flagstaff. Wilcox made a point about the size of "defensive" rock walls surrounding sites and how well or poorly they might function as a protective structure with the introduction of the bow and arrow weapons system. Wilcox noted that the archaeological evidence was equivocal with regard to "defensive" walls being well-suited to protective efficiency or retaliatory combat efficiency during episodic warfare or raiding...... There are many references to the bow and arrow in Southwestern archaeology. Perhaps after this message is posted, other Southwestern archaeologists will provide commentary about the introduction of the bow and arrow by submitting information directly to you, or to the SWA SASIG, or to email@example.com.