Message #121:
From: AzTeC SW Archaeology SIG
To:   "'Matthias Giessler'" 
Subject: Archaeological Vandalism
Date: Mon, 29 Apr 96 13:01:00 MST
Encoding: 87 TEXT

Archaeological vandalism is a major problem throughout the United States. 
The new magazine titled "Common Ground"  (Volume 1 Number 1, Spring 1996), 
published by the National Park Service (NPS), carries some interesting 
information about vandals.

Common Ground (CG) cites the case of Frederick J. Lindauer -- convicted of 
an ARPA violation in 1989.  The article noted that Lindauer hid artifacts 
from the authorities after his conviction.  His estranged wife was 
interviewed by the FBI on matters unrelated to archaeological vandalism; the 
police searched Lindauer's home as part of a narcotics investigation and 
discovered the artifacts.  Lindauer was indicted yet again, and now is 
serving a two year sentence.

CG cites another case  --  the Olustee Battlefield (of 1864)  --  in which 
vandals crept throught the site wearing camouflage fatigues, using 
night-vision goggles and metal detectors to loot the site.  The two men were 
arrested on the site one night, but only after one of them fired a shot at 
law officers.  A third partner was later arrested.  The trio is awaiting 

CG reprises the case of Earl Shumwway in Utah.  He was already serving time 
for an unrelated burglary when he received an ARPA conviction for looting 
sites.  He recently was sentenced to prison.  Shumway's partner is under 
home confinement and must wear an ankle transmitter which reports if he 
ventures more than 150 ft from his house without permission.

CG also reports Charles Snyder's sentencing for selling artifacts removed 
from Custer Battlefield.  Two other persons were involved in this case. 
Interestingly, Snyder obtained the Custer Battlefield artifacts by trading 
them in exchange for Nazi memorabilia.  He later tried to sell the artifacts 
on consignment through an auction house.

Finally, CG reports a case resulting in the conviction of three men in 
Klamath County District Court.  In this case, the men were looting and 
selling Native American human remains and associated funerary objects to 
finance a methamphetamine labortatory.

To obtain a free subscription to Common Ground, please contact:

National Park Service, Archaeology and Ethnography Program
P.O. Box 37127, Washington, DC 20013-7127
Phone: (202) 343-4101 / Fax: (202) 523-1547
E-mail: or
These are interesting connections --  Narcotics investigations; camouflage 
fatigues; night vision goggles and metal detectors; burglary; Nazi 
memorabilia; and, methamphetamine labortatories.  IF such reporting by the 
NPS magazine Common Ground, and federal and state law enforcement agencies, 
is correct, archaeological vandalism appears to be about much more than 
digging and stealing artifacts.

The view that archaeological vandalism is related to other more serious 
crimes is repeated by Erny Kuncl in a 1995 article 
titled " Pot for Pots: Archaeological Site Vandalism-Drug Connection (Drug 
Dealers Make An Exchange)."  

For more on vandalism, take a look at these article on the Southwestern 
Archaeology Special Interest Group (SASIG):

The hot link titled "Where to report vandalism" currently runs on SWA AZ 
page at
Under "Where to report Vandalism", SWA lists Arizona phone 
numbers for reporting archaeological vandalism.  Today SWA will be adding to 
this page the following info:

  "24 hour ARPA Hotline 1-800-722-3998"

SWA desperately needs vandalism reporting phone numbers for southeast CA and 
NV; UT, CO, NM; and, west TX, Sonora and Chihuahua.  If you have national, 
statewide or county contact numbers or other information to share, please