of the Pecos Conference, as Alfred
Vincent Kidder put it in summing up the first such gathering,
about contact between workers in the Southwest field to discuss
fundamental problems of Southwestern prehistory; and to formulate
problems of Southwest prehistory; to pool knowledge of facts
and techniques, and to lay a foundation for a unified system
informal, the Pecos Conference affords Southwestern archaeologists
a superlative opportunity to talk with one another, both by presenting
field reports and by casual discussions. It is a chance to see
old friends, meet new ones, pick up fresh information, organize
future conferences, and have a great time.
years, Native Americans, avocational archaeologists, the general
public and media organizations have come to play an increasingly
important role, serving as participants and as audience, to celebrate
archaeological research and to mark cultural continuity.
of research collaboration and sharing that began in 1927 at Pecos
Pueblo returns to it's home at Pecos National Historical Park,
under the guidance of dedicated archaeologists, Federal, state
and local agency sponsors, and tribal representatives...
2007, marks the 80th anniversary of the Pecos Conference, first
convened by Alfred V. Kidder at Pecos Pueblo, New Mexico, in 1927.
Because the Conference was not held during certain years (due
to World War II and other circumstances [cf. * Woodbury 1993]),
this years meeting will not be the 80th annual gathering.
year is, in fact, the 70th annual meeting of the Pecos Conference.
In the early 1990s, the numbering of the Pecos Conference became
confused, when the anniversary year was substituted for the actual
count of prior conferences. Clearly,
we cannot mend past problems with the numbering of the Pecos Conference.
Our solution is to indicate that this years conference will
be the 70th occurrence and refer formally to this years
event simply as the Pecos Conference 2007.
Richard 1993 Sixty Years of Southwestern Archaeology: A
History of the Pecos Conference. University of New Mexico Press,
Albuquerque. ( See also: Downum
Pecos Conference theme is
Galisteo Basin Archaeology. The
following research articles provide background data to help set
the stage for understanding & enjoying presentations and conversations
at the Pecos Conference:
Nels Nelson publishes Pueblo
Ruins of the Galisteo Basin, New Mexico. Anthropological papers
of the American Museum of Natural History ; ; v. 15, pt. 1
A.V Kidder publishes Archeological
Explorations at Pecos, New Mexico. The archaeological work
consisted entirely of excavations in the great rubbish heap on
the east side of the mesa. The most important results were of
a stratigraphic nature. The pottery at the bottom was markedly
different from that at the top, and there were several distinct
Nels Nelson reports on The
Chronology of the Tano Ruins, New Mexico. His data consisted
mainly of observations of the stratigraphic relationship of several
widely distributed types of pottery.
M.A Kidder & A.V. Kidder publish Notes
on the Pottery of Pecos. They described how Nelson excavated
a stratified rubbish heap at San Cristobal, and compared the types
found there with types found at other sites. The Kidders noted
that "Nelson's discovery, and his discriminating analysis
of materials, constituted one of the most important contributions
that has yet been made to North American archaeology." The
Kidders use their Pecos materials to cross-reference and supplement
the data secured by Nelson, to assist "the constantly increasing
number of archaeologists working in the Southwest."
Helen Roberts reports The
Reason for the Departure of the Pecos Indians for Jemez Pueblo.
It seems the Cicuye Indians had a snake god, which they kept in
a kiva, and which enabled them to obtain all of the things they
asked for. One day the snake god departed. The people of Cicuye
moved and went to live with the people of Jemez.
W.S Stallings reports A
Tree-Ring Chronology for the Rio Grande Drainage in Northern New
Mexico. Stalling's article was an announcement of some preliminary
results of the application of A.E. Douglass' methods of dating
to the New Mexico area. He cored his tree-ring samples from the
early 1200s from the Pajarito Plateau, the Rio Ojo Caliente drainage
and the Galisteo Basin.
Walter W. Taylor comments on Southwestern
Archeology, Its History and Theory. Archaeology-with-a-purpose
in the Southwest began around 1880, and a major goal of this period
of work was "to connect living Indian cultures with their
archeological antecedents." According to Taylor, "Southwesternists
were mightily disinterested in time and its problems." However,
during the first part of the second decade of the twentieth century,
a revolution occurred in time-space research -- "Southwesternists
developed a strong consciousness of time and an impelling concern
with cultural differences and their distribution is space... From
the work at Pecos ruin came three of the most significant developments
in Southwestern archeology: Kidder's An
Introduction to the Study of Southwestern Archaeology (1924),
the first Pecos Conference in 1927, and the Pecos classification,
which three were to guide Southwestern archeology from that day
Fred Wendorf describes A
Reconstruction of Northern Rio Grande Prehistory.
C. Nelson and Chronological Archaeology, Richard Woodbury
describes Nelson's important role in demonstrating that statistical
analysis of data from arbitrary levels could reveal chronological
change just as could data from physically distinct strata.
Richard Woodbury comments on Nelson's
Stratigraphy, noting that Nelson's immediate stimulus for
stratigraphic technique in the Galisteo Basin, New Mexico, "was
his participation in 1913 in Obermeier and Breuil's excavations
in Castillo Cave," a Spanish Paleolithic site. These cave
deposits "gave Nelson the inspiration rather than the exact
model for his subsequent work in the Galisteo Basin of New Mexico..."
Bertha Dutton describes the site of Las
Madres In The Light of Anasazi Migrations. Galisteo Black-on-white
pottery looks similar to the pottery found at Mesa Verde. Dutton's
excavations produced an interesting re-evaluation of the meaning
of pottery types.
Polly Schaafsma & Curtis Schaafsma study rock
art iconography and conclude the katchina cult arrived in
the Pueblo Southwest in the 14th Century from the Jornada region
of the Mogollon.
Robert Dunnel reviews the archaeological
literature for 1980 and concludes that the relationship of
CRM archaeology to academic archaeology "is probably the
single most significant element in the field... the vast majority
of all new archaeological funding in the United States is associated
with CRM programs. The gap between CRM and academic archaeology
continues to grow..."
Marta Weigle describes how the American public came to know the
Southwest in From
Desert to Disney World: The Santa Fe Railway and the Fred Harvey
Company Display the Indian Southwest.
Dale R. Lightfoot reports on the Morphology
and Ecology of Lithic-Mulch Agriculture. Lightfoot surveyed
the pebble-mulch gardens found in the Galisteo Basin south of
Santa Fe. Enhancements offered by the strategy allowed more intensive
cropping as a response to population pressures or prolonged drought.
Dale Lightfoot and Frank Eddy describe The
Construction and Configuration of Anasazi Pebble-Mulch Gardens
In The Northern Rio Grande. Their paper focuses on pebble-mulch
gardens in the Galisteo Basin. The technique allowed the Anasazi
to expand agriculture from A.D. 1350-1500.
Frank Eddy et al. report on the Air
Photographic Mapping of San Marcos Pueblo.
Frances Levine and Ann LaBauve review historical records while
the Complexity of Historic Population Decline: A Case Study of
Pecos Pueblo New Mexico.
Shawn L. Penman et al., in Will
the Real San Marcos Pueblo Please Stand Up: An Examination of
Bias and Error in Site Maps, take advantage of the existence
of three, independently produced maps of one site, San Marcos
Pueblo (LA 98) located in Galisteo Basin, to examine similarities
and differences in the ways the maps depict the settlement.
History of Attempts to Explain Southwestern Corrugated Pottery,
Christopher Pierce discusses how, from the late tenth through
early thirteenth centuries AD, ancestors of the modern Pueblo
people across most of the northern part of the American Southwest
adopted a variety of corrugated pottery. The technology continued
until the fifteenth century when Pueblo potters returned to plain-surfaced
Ann F. Ramenofsky and Christopher Pierce suggest, in a Proposal
to Conduct Archaeological Research at San Marcos Pueblo (LA98)
by the University of New Mexico, that, although continued
historical research (documentary and oral) will produce new information,
much new knowledge may only be accessible through archaeological
research. Addressing questions about the early contact period
in New Mexico requires that we know quite a bit more about the
organization and size of Pueblo societies just prior to contact
with the Spanish.
Ann F. Ramenofsky and Christopher Pierce provide A
Summary Report on Archaeological Mapping at Pueblo San Marcos
(LA98), 1997 & 1998. In it, they report they completed
their goal of updated mapping at San Marcos.
Ann F. Ramenofsky & Christopher Pierce present Time
and Population from the Surface at San Marcos Pueblo (LA98), North
Central New Mexico. They noted that some types of data are
difficult to obtain, and some types of work difficult to perform,
because the methods used tend to either obscure fine-grained temporal
distinctions or necessitate costly and politically objectionable
large-scale excavations. Working at San Marcos Pueblo (LA98),
a large, late site in the Galisteo Basin of New Mexico, using
detailed mapping, systematic surface collections, and multiple
seriations of midden deposits, they documented alternating periods
of occupation and abandonment of the pueblo. This reconstruction
challenges conventional wisdom regarding the occupational history
of these late, large settlements as representing deep sedentism
with population decline and abandonment occurring only after Spanish
LAW 108208MAR. 19, 2004 Galisteo Basin Archaeological
Sites Protection Act
Southwest Highlights: Archaeology and the Public in the Galisteo
Galisteo Archaeology Newsletter Galisteo Basin Archaeology November
Hills/Galisteo Basin State Park Feasibility Study